Bleesern stud farm

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Bleesern stud farm - condition around 1997
Bleesern stud farm - reconstructed original condition in 1686, with central building in the north wing (after 1764)

The former Vorwerk or Hofgestüt Bleesern in Seegrehna , a district of Wittenberg , is one of the most important architectural monuments in Saxony-Anhalt. It has been a listed building since 1992.


Bleesern is a former stud or Vorwerk in Seegrehna , a district of Wittenberg . From the 15th to the 18th century it served the Electors of Saxony as a court stud. The baroque complex designed by Wolf Caspar von Klengel is the oldest stud building in Germany.


Bleesern emerged from a castle ward of the 12th century, first mentioned in 1379 as a Vorwerk; the use by the Saxon electors since then is almost completely verifiable. Already 1449/1450 was a Stuterei . Friedrich III, who resided in Wittenberg from 1486 . (the wise), arch marshal of the Holy Roman Empire, used Bleesern as an electoral Saxon court stud. It remained in this function until 1721, after which it was used as a mule stud, horse breeding station for the Wittenberg Office and, after 1816, as a royal Prussian domain, leased to tenants from 1831; after the land reform in 1948, some of the buildings were still used for agriculture. Since 2012 the Friends of Hofgestüt Bleesern e. V. Owner of the east and south wings.

During the Schmalkaldic War, on June 4, 1547, after the Wittenberg surrender on the Gestütswiese near Bleesern, which was later called "Duke Moritz 'Wiese" , Emperor Karl V granted Duke Moritz the electoral dignity of Saxony , with which the Albertine line reigned until 1918 the Wettin began in the Electorate and later Kingdom of Saxony.

Under Elector August von Sachsen , a manorial estate with a castle-like mansion, administrators 'house, outbuildings and pleasure garden was built in 1578, which was partially destroyed by the Thirty Years' War and flood damage in 1655. The reconstruction took place from 1675. Beatrice Härig from the German Foundation for Monument Protection points out that the principle of the "tame stud" was applied: The animals are kept in the stable all year round and not in the summer, as in the "semi-wild studs" in the field. Such a facility requires large loose stalls for mares, foals and young horses. This was expressed in the spacious architecture. Plans and inventories offer a picture of the parts of this complex that were still preserved in 1723 and which probably perished in the Seven Years' War. On behalf of Elector Johann Georg II , the stud buildings that are preserved today were built from 1675 to 1686 based on a design by the Saxon chief architect Wolf Caspar von Klengel . Elector Friedrich August I ( Augustus the Strong ) stayed in Bleesern often. In 1699 he spent Christmas Eve here. In 1721 he ordered the transfer of the horses from Bleesern to the newly built Graditz stud farm near Torgau. The electoral Saxon mule breeding was concentrated in Bleesern until 1744.

In the time of the GDR , the facility was used by an LPG , was empty after the fall of the Wall and was visibly deteriorating.

Todays situation

East wing after first security measures (2017)

The former Bleesern or Vorwerk stud farm has been a listed building since 1992. It is one of the most important architectural monuments in Saxony-Anhalt. Prof. Heinrich Magirius (Dresden / Radebeul) called it a “milestone in the baroque architecture of the old Electoral Saxony”. After 1990, the formerly state-owned buildings were individually privatized, which led to considerable problems for the preservation of the structure. In addition to the rehabilitated parts, the south and east wings were acutely endangered due to a lack of construction maintenance and willful destruction. A large part of the building was supposed to be demolished in the summer of 1997 after a new owner had tried in vain to use the premises for turkey breeding. In 2006 and 2007, students from the Technical University of Dresden began a building survey to precisely document the valuable complex. The Förderverein Hofgestüt Bleesern e. V., who works in Seegrehna for the preservation of the architectural monument. In 2012 the building was recognized by the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media (BKM) as a monument of national importance. The first work to secure the building structure began in November 2014 with funding from the federal government and the state of Saxony-Anhalt and was continued in 2016/2017 as part of the LEADER funding program. In 2017, the association was awarded the Silver Hemisphere, the German Prize for Monument Protection, by the DNK, the German National Committee for Monument Protection , for its previous achievements in the preservation of the former court stud . The plans provide for stables and a hostel for hikers and cyclists.

Historical meaning

Bleesern is one of the oldest princely studs in Germany. It is the oldest Saxon court stud. A mare can be found here as early as the middle of the 15th century . The early baroque buildings of the formerly closed four-wing complex are the oldest surviving stud buildings in all of Germany, the farm buildings are unique in the only fragmentary oeuvre of Klengels, one of the most important German architects of the 17th century in terms of art history. In addition to the chapel of Moritzburg Castle , the Hausmannsturm of Dresden Castle and the palace in the Great Garden , Bleesern is the oldest surviving evidence of court architecture of the Dresden Baroque . It became the model for all the following Saxon court studs near Torgau ( Repitz , Kreischau ), especially for the Graditz main stud designed by Pöppelmann and the Neubleesern stud farm. There are also numerous structural parallels to the main and state stud Neustadt (Dosse), which was built much later . Dankwart Guratzsch aptly called the Bleesern farm stud “the mother of all studs”.


Bleesern, east wing, courtyard side of the former horse stable
Bleesern, court stud, stable gate

Essential parts of the architecture, which has always been simple and functional, have been preserved: the impressively large cubature , the central axis of symmetry from the gatehouse to the administrator's house, the extremely robust outer walls, the artistic structuring elements on the courtyard side and also the direct reference to the surrounding landscape of the Elbe connects undisturbed to the system in the north. In the east and south wings of the four-wing complex, the early Baroque architecture of the 17th century has been handed down most originally. The facades are rhythmically structured by the monumental arched portals with ox-eye windows (oculi) made of Elbe sandstone above , which reveal the building as a construction by Wolf Caspar von Klengels . The windows are framed by sandstone walls with late Renaissance profiles. A powerful eaves cornice closes off the facades opposite the mighty roof. The northern stable portal of the east wing is dated in the Keilstein by the year of completion to 1686, processed monograms above the gate in the south wing attest to the inauguration under Elector Johann Georg III. (Saxony) . Large areas of the original plastering and individual color findings illustrate the appearance of the period of construction.

With the exception of the gatehouse and the northern half of the east wing, the historic roof structure has been largely preserved. The roof covering (approx. 2500 m²) is damaged in various ways, largely dense over the south wing and ruinous over the east wing. As a result of the conversion and the associated renovations in the interior after 1764, the former stable boxes of the horse stable were replaced by wooden bulk floors for the use of the barn in the 19th and 20th centuries more than 200 years ago. In the northern part of the east wing, these were removed with a permit under monument law to protect against sponge infestation.

Already in the 17th century, the elongated wing structures had almost no internal structure, as it corresponds to the historical use as a stable and barn. The oldest surviving floor plan from 1764 clearly shows this. The architecture consisted of large room envelopes, which could be variably structured according to economic necessity through light fixtures. Similar to the palace construction of the Baroque period, different areas of use (stables, barns, living quarters) were integrated into uniform structures and subjected to an overall architectural concept. If Hans Sedlmayr called the stud established by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach for Prince Liechtenstein in Eisgrub ( Lednice , Moravia) in 1687/88 a “Castle of the Horses” in view of the similarly demanding structures, this can rightly also apply to the older Bleesern in Can be claimed.


  • Mario Titze: The former electoral Saxon stud Bleesern. A building by Wolf Caspar von Klengels. In: Preservation of monuments in Saxony-Anhalt. 1/1998, pp. 53-59.
  • Mario Titze: New research on Vorwerk Bleesern, Ldkr. Wittenberg. In: Castles and palaces in Saxony-Anhalt. Vol. 11/2002, pp. 368-383.
  • Dankwart Guratzsch: Endangered: The mother of all studs. In: The world . August 8, 2002, p. 28 ( online ).
  • Mario Titze: The Electoral Saxon Court Stud Bleesern near Wittenberg. In: Saxony-Anhalt. Journal for nature and homeland friends. 1/2007, pp. 18-19.
  • Cathrin Flößer: Expiry date. Germany's oldest stud is located near Wittenberg and was ultimately supposed to house turkeys. In: Cavallo. The magazine for active riding. 11/2007, pp. 138-139.
  • Mario Titze: Bleesern stud farm. Future for an endangered architectural monument. In: Saxony-Anhalt. Journal for nature and homeland friends. 2/2011, pp. 13-14.

Web links

Commons : Hofgestüt Bleesern  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Beatrice Härig: Warhorse of History , In: Monumente , Edition 3/2020, P. 28ff.
  2. ^ Förderverein Hofgestüt Bleesern e. V. . Retrieved August 29, 2012.
  3. Seegrehna: Federal government finances securing the stud with In: Mitteldeutsche Zeitung , accessed on October 25, 2017.
  4. Seegrehna: Funding for the Bleesern stud farm In: Mitteldeutsche Zeitung , accessed on October 25, 2017.
  5. Press release no .: 516/2017 - Friends of Saxony-Anhalt receives German Prize for Monument Protection In: , accessed on October 25, 2017.

Coordinates: 51 ° 50 ′ 13.3 ″  N , 12 ° 33 ′ 59.9 ″  E