Cassation (legal remedy)

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The cassation (from Latin cassare , to cancel, to annul ”) or a cassation complaint is a formal judicial remedy in the procedural law of numerous states.

It is basically limited to the legal issue and is therefore a functional equivalent to a revision or appeal on a point of law in Germany, a revision, appeal on a revision or an appeal of nullity in Austria or an appeal to the federal court in Switzerland. Typically, the cassation complaint lacks the suspensive effect , so that the cassation decision can breach the legal force (in this respect similar to the successful constitutional complaint ).

The admitting cassation decision can, but does not necessarily have to be, purely cassatory content . In detail, there can be numerous other differences depending on the legal system (e.g. initial instance; holder of the right of initiative; length of the deadline to be observed; approval of the appeal by Iudex a quo or ad quem ; examination of all or only the legal violations complained of).

In countries with cassation, its question-related and suspensive counterpart is the appellation (" vocation ").

The forerunners of cassation can be traced back to 13th century France. The common law equivalent was the nullity complaint ( Latin querela nullitatis).

European Union

States with cassation

- in Western Europe: - in Eastern Europe:

England, Ireland and the Nordic legal system conceptually have a uniform system of legal remedies ( English Appeal , Danish Anke , etc.).

Socialist legal system

Cassation also existed in procedural law in the Soviet Union and other socialist states .

Before the higher regional courts of the Soviet occupation zone and from 1949 before the Supreme Court of the GDR , the attorney general had the right to apply for the cassation of final decisions in civil and criminal matters. The model was the Soviet Prokuratura as the “guardian of legality” in the sense of a general control body over the activities of the administration and the courts, legally the annulment complaint in criminal cases from the Nazi era. From 1952 the President of the Supreme Court also had the right to make an application; from 1963 the district courts were also authorized to cassate at the request of their directors or the respective district attorney.

In principle, the application for cassation was limited to one year after it became legally binding. An essential peculiarity was that the right of application did not lie with those involved in the process. Citizens could only introduce suggestions of cassation as a special form of submission , but had no procedural position and no right to a reason if their request was rejected.

In the contractual court procedure, the cassation corresponded to the review , in the social security complaint procedure the annulment of legally binding decisions .

A cassation authority still exists in Russia today, but compared to the socialist era it is closer to cassation in the West.


  • Sofie MF Geeroms: Comparative law and legal translation: why the terms cassation, revision and appeal should not be translated ... In: The American journal of comparative law . tape 50 , no. 1 , 2002, p. 201-228 , JSTOR : 840834 .
  • John Anthony Jolowicz (Ed.): Recourse against judgments in the European Union = Voies de recours dans l'Union Européenne = Appeals in the European Union (=  Civil procedure in Europe . Volume 2 ). Kluwer Law International, The Hague 1999, ISBN 978-90-411-1197-5 ( limited preview in Google book search). content

To the German area:

  • Torsten Reich: Cassation in Civil Matters - Act of Measure or Legal Institution? In: Forum historiae iuris . 1997 ( ).
  • Gerd Janke: On the cassation activity of the Supreme Court of the GDR in civil matters . In: Forum historiae iuris . 2007 ( [PDF]).
  • Matthias Esch: The cassation in criminal matters (=  reports of the Eastern European Institute at the Free University of Berlin, series economy and law, jurisprudential episode . Volume 147 ). Osteuropa-Institut, Berlin 1992, ISBN 978-3-921374-46-7 ( limited preview in Google book search).
  • Nicole Hanne: Breaches of the legal force of criminal decisions in the alternation of political systems: a comparative historical study of criminal proceedings in Austria, the Nazi era, the GDR and the Federal Republic with special consideration of the annulment complaint and the cassation (=  writings on procedural law . Volume 190 ). Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2005, ISBN 978-3-428-11642-3 ( limited preview in Google book search).

From a legal sociological perspective for the Netherlands / Germany:

Web links

supporting documents

  1. Example of civil procedure for Western Europe: France, Art. 604 CPC ( règles de droit ); for Eastern Europe: Russia, Art. 387 ГПК , Art. 288 АПК ( норм материального права или норм процессуального права )
  2. On the term, for example, Suzanne Ballansat-Aebi, The Equivalence of Legal Terms in Different Legal Systems (2014); see also functional comparative law
  3. For the original differences between cassation and revision, see The entire material on the Reich Laws of Justice , Volume 2 Civil Proceedings Code (1880), 1st section, General Justification § 14, pp. 142 f.
  4. See, for example, the Lugano Convention , Appendix IV
  5. Example France: Art. 579 CPC ( ne sont pas suspensifs d'exécution ); if necessary, enforcement can be suspended in individual cases (example in Russia: Art. 283 АПК РФ Приостановление исполнения ); see. also Art. 103 BGG in Switzerland
  6. ↑ On this Limbach / Böckenförde / Summer (1996)
  7. In France the rule, cf. Art. 625 CPC
  8. Example Russia, Art. 390 ГПК , Art. 287 АПК ( отменить / изменить )
  9. a b For Belgium, France, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain: John Anthony Jolowicz (Ed.): Recourse against judgments in the European Union (1999; limited preview in the Google book search)
  10. ^ Matthias Esch: The cassation in criminal matters (1992), p.10 ; Nicole Hanne: Breaches of the legal force of criminal decisions in the change of political systems (2005), p. 27
  11. ^ Deutsches Rechts-Lexikon , Volume 2; Arthur Skedl: The nullity complaint in its historical development (1886)
  12. so still today in Catholic canon law : Can. 1619 CIC , Can. 1302 CCEO
  13. Historically: Friedrich Schöndorf: Introduction to the current Slavic law (private and procedural law) in a comparative legal representation . Volume 1, Bulgaria , § 58 III, pp. 253–257 (1922; limited preview in the Google book search)
  14. RSFSR : Art. 325 УПК РСФСР (1960); Art. 282 ГПК РСФСР (1964)
  15. Example of Thuringia: Law on the cassation of legally binding judgments in criminal matters of October 10, 1947 ( RegBl. I p. 81 )
  16. Law on the establishment of the Supreme Court and the Supreme Public Prosecutor's Office of the German Democratic Republic of December 8, 1949 ( Journal of Laws No. 16 p. 111 ), Section III (Sections 12–16); later §§ 311–327 StPO-DDR (1968), §§ 160–162 ZPO-DDR (1975)
  17. Public Prosecutor's Office (
  18. Caroline von Gall: The Judicial System of Russia June 1, 2018
  19. ^ Ordinance on the jurisdiction of the criminal courts, the special courts and other provisions of criminal procedure law of February 21, 1940 ( RGBl. I p. 405 ), § 34; Ordinance to further simplify the administration of criminal justice of August 13, 1942 ( RGBl. I p. 508 ), Art. 7 § 2; on this OG President Schumann , NJ 1950 pp. 240, 242
  20. Judicial Constitution Act (1952) ( Memento of the original of July 9, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  21. ^ Courts Constitution Act (1963)
  22. cf. Article 40, Paragraph 1 of the GVG 1974 ( Memento of the original of July 30, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; Decision of the Presidium of the Supreme Court of December 9, 1987, OG-Informations 1988 No. 2, pp. 3–8 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  23. Anita Grandke, NJ 1989, pp. 200, 203 ; Andrea Baer: The independence of judges in the Federal Republic of Germany and in the GDR (1999), p. 63
  24. Sections 49 to 55 of the ordinance on the tasks and functioning of the State Contracting Court (SVG-VO, GBl. II 1970 No. 29 p. 209 )
  25. no. 42 to 44 of the guideline on the election, tasks and working methods of the complaint commissions for social insurance of the Free German Trade Union Confederation ( Journal of Laws of 1978 No. 8 p. 109 )
  26. Art. 376 ff. ГПК РФ (2002); Art. 273 ff. А ПК РФ (2002); Art. 401.1 ff. УПК РФ (2001)
  27. The WiRO - manual translated under RUS 912 even with "revision".