Max Günther (cultural functionary)

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Max Hermann Günther (born December 31, 1887 in Pobershau ; † after January 1945) was a Saxon cultural functionary during the National Socialist era . He was school director, district culture warden and board member of the Heimatwerk Sachsen . Alongside Friedrich Emil Krauss, he is considered to be the patron and curator of the Erzgebirge traditions in the time and in the spirit of National Socialism.


He was the son of site manager Louis Hermann Günther from Pobershau in the Ore Mountains and his wife Marie Auguste, née Kraus. In Pobershau he attended the local elementary school from 1894 to 1902. He then switched to the pre-seminar and the seminar in Annaberg. After attending the Realgymnasium Annaberg in 1908/09, Günther studied at the universities in Kiel and Munich in 1909/10. At Easter 1910 he enrolled at the University of Leipzig , where he devoted himself to philosophical, historical, economic and philological studies. It was in 1912 with the thesis "The sociological foundations of naturalistic drama of recent German history" at Karl Lamprecht and John Volkelt Dr. phil. PhD . Following the completion of teacher training he was already in 1920 as a teacher active in Annaberg. In addition, he had been the head of the district culture department of the Annaberg-Obererzgebirge district of the NSDAP at least since 1933 . Also in 1933 he prepared the creation of his own Ore Mountains festive and Sunday costume. On May 21, 1935, various attempts at traditional costumes were presented to invited guests from the Annaberg, Aue and Marienberg districts in the Frohnauer Hammer . The traditional headscarf, for example, was replaced by the Barbara Uttmann bonnet with its lace . This festival and Sunday costume was introduced in the Erzgebirge in 1935 after approval by the Reichsstatthalter and Gauleiter Martin Mutschmann and widely spread with the help of the Erzgebirge Association, so that it is still sometimes worn by traditional costume, dialect and music groups today.

Together with Hans Wittig-Friesen, he wrote the Book of Loyalty , which Werner Vogelsang personally presented to Adolf Hitler in 1934 and contained the history of the spread of National Socialism in the Upper Ore Mountains on 78 parchment sheets.

In 1935, under the patronage of the Reich Governor Martin Mutschmann, he organized the national show Christmas happiness in the Ore Mountains in Annaberg , the model for the subsequent, extremely successful celebration ohmd exhibition in Schwarzenberg / Erzgeb. was under the direction of Friedrich Emil Krauss.

Together with Curt Lahr , Arthur Graefe and Georg Hartmann from the Saxon State Chancellery as well as Friedrich Emil Krauss and the Meißner NSDAP district leader Karl Hans Drechsel , he founded the Heimatwerk Sachsen in 1936, which under the patronage of Reich Governor Mutschmann controls and harmonizes all cultural endeavors in the Free State of Saxony served in the interests of the NSDAP. He tried to play a decisive role in the development of culture in Saxony and, from 1938, through the annexation of the Sudetenland, also in the Bohemian Ore Mountains , for example by formulating and publishing new tasks for the Ore Mountains in 1941 , which were entirely under the sign of National Socialism and the war.

In the autumn of 1940 he took over the management of the all-German Erzgebirgsverein from Werner Vogelsang on a provisional basis until 1944 .

After the teacher training institute was opened in Annaberg on May 7, 1941 , he became its director.


  • Cultural history in the upper classes of high schools. In: Draft of a curriculum for teaching history and civics in the human, secondary and reform high schools of the Free State of Saxony. 1920.
  • Lecture by the district culture warden of the NSDAP Annaberg Dr. Günther at the main meeting of the EV in Thalheim . In: Erzgebirgsverein (Ed.) Glück auf! , Journal of the Erzgebirgsverein. Schwarzenberg 1933, pp. 253-256.
  • The German farmer. History of the German peasantry . In: New Paths . Volume 45, No. 9, Dürr, Leipzig 1934, pp. 273–277 ( digitized version , accessed on February 1, 2016).
  • Why an Ore Mountain costume? In: Erzgebirgsverein (Ed.) Glück auf! , Journal of the Erzgebirgsverein. 55th year, no. 8, Gärtner, Schwarzenberg August 1935, pp. 178–179.
  • Christmas happiness in the Ore Mountains . In: Erzgebirgsverein (Ed.) Glück auf! , Journal of the Erzgebirgsverein. 55th year, No. 8, Gärtner, Schwarzenberg August 1935, pp. 253-254.
  • Our tasks . In: Erzgebirgsverein (Ed.) Glück auf! , Journal of the Erzgebirgsverein. 61st volume, No. 10–11, Gärtner, Schwarzenberg August 1941, pp. 97–99.
  • Village culture . In: Erzgebirgsverein (Ed.) Glück auf! Journal of the Erzgebirgsverein. 62nd year, No. 10–11, Gärtner, Schwarzenberg August 1942, pp. 1–5.


  • Elvira Werner : Dialect in the Ore Mountains . Weiss-Grün, Marienberg 1999, ISBN 3-931770-18-4 .
  • Clemens Vollnhals: Saxony in the Nazi era. 2002, p. 263.
  • Michael Simon, Monika Kania-Schütz, Sönke Löden: On the history of folklore. People, programs, positions. 2002.
  • Günther Heydemann, Heinrich Oberreuter: dictatorships in Germany, comparative aspects: structures, institutions and behavior. 2003, p. 579.
  • Francesca Weil: Disempowerment in office: Mayors and district administrators in the Annaberg district, 1930–1961 , 2004, p. 43.
  • Thomas Schaarschmidt: Regional Culture and Dictatorship. Saxon homeland movement and homeland propaganda in the Third Reich and in the Soviet Zone / GDR. 2004, p. 120.
  • Lenore Lobeck: Friedrich Emil Krauss (1895–1977). An entrepreneur from the Ore Mountains. In: Journal of the SED State Research Association. Issue 37, 2015, pp. 35–61. ISSN  0948-9878

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Manuel Schramm: Consumption and regional identity in Saxony 1880-2000: the regionalization of consumer goods in the field of tension between nationalization and globalization (=  quarterly journal for social and economic history - supplements . Volume 164 ). 1st edition. Steiner, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 978-3-515-08169-6 , pp. 177 (dissertation, Leipzig 2001).
  2. Why an Ore Mountains costume? In: Erzgebirgsverein (Hrsg.): Glück auf! Journal of the Erzgebirgsverein . 55th year, no. 8 . Gärtner, Schwarzenberg August 1935, p. 178-179 .
  3. Max Günther: Our tasks . In: Erzgebirgsverein (Hrsg.): Glück auf! Journal of the Erzgebirgsverein. 61st year, no. 10-11 . Gärtner, Schwarzenberg August 1941, p. 97-99 .
  4. ^ History and development of the house. (No longer available online.) In: Evangelical school community Erzgebirge, archived from the original on January 27, 2016 ; accessed on February 1, 2016 .