|Official title||, downgrade
|Academic Council||A 13 (Z)|
|Senior teacher||A 14|
|Director of Studies||A 15|
|Senior Director of Studies||A 16|
Studienrat (abbr.StR) is an official title in Germany for a civil servant in the higher or higher service in qualification level 4 , who is paid in salary group A 13 , usually works as a teacher at a higher school in Germany and pupils until graduation at upper secondary level . In retirement, the official title with the addition “a. D. “. There are school teachers at high schools to high schools to middle schools (in Bavaria) to comprehensive schools , at vocational schools , in further education colleges, to primary schools (z. B. (in Bavaria) to scientific institutions of the country Lower Saxony ) on country training centers , to support centers and in several federal states also the "Studienrat im Hochschuldienst", which is part of the academic mid-level staff at universities. In the GDR there was the honorary title of teacher for a teacher.
There are also civil servant teachers at church schools with the title “Studienrat im Kirchendienst” or “StR i. K. “, who are in a church official relationship that is equal to the state civil servant law.
Requirements for appointment, titles
The appointment of the teacher puts a completed scientific university degree (usually with at least two main subjects and educational supplementary part ), one and a half to two-year clerkship with accompanying training at a study seminar and a three-year usually trial as civil servants on probation ahead.
Introduction of the official title “Studienrat” and its socio-historical significance
Wilhelm II. Replaced in 1918 by a decree, the official title of " senior teacher " by the character-title "teacher". The standardization and simplification of the teachers' designations for the Studienrat, Oberstudienrat and Study Director was preceded by a multitude of different and confusing titles. In Prussia , two thirds of the high school teachers had the title of senior teacher since 1892, and another third had the title of “ high school professor ”. Senior teachers were full professors who taught in the upper school. As early as 1892 in Prussia they were treated as equal with the judges of the first instance and thus recognized as officials of the higher service of the fifth class.
The higher education and the coveted "Rats" title raised the previously rather low social prestige of the high school teacher considerably and was mainly due to the continuing efforts of the "Association of Academically Educated Teachers" of 1903 ( called " German Philologists Association " from 1921 ), which was responsible for the professional Represented the interests of the high school teachers, about 95% of whom were organized in him.
As Rudolf Summer noted, the council title as a basic office designation is given a reference to the education system through the prescribed career addition "study" . The use of an additional free advice title for civil servants seemed too general. The use of the term “Director of Studies” was also intended to avoid confusion with other directors, especially the board members of companies in the private sector who were often so titled at the time .
Abolition of the official title and decision of the Federal Constitutional Court
According to Der Spiegel , Bremen was the only federal state to attempt in 1979 to abolish the use of the official title of "Studienrat" and to introduce a new official title of "Teacher in public schools" (LÖSCH). In response to the action brought by the Philologists ' Association, the Bremen Administrative Court lifted the subsequent withdrawal of the official title. However, the Higher Administrative Court rejected a claim to award the official title to young teachers. The general action was brought before the Federal Constitutional Court. According to Rudolf Summer, the Federal Constitutional Court ruled that the official titles should not be "leveled out", they should be differentiated so that the recognition of performance is clear and the position is transparent to the outside world.
Special features of the countries
Until 2009, the candidate for the board of directors was referred to as a study assessor.
historical ranking in Baden (1905):
- Teaching trainee
- Go Councilor
In Bavaria, a civil servant on probation with the second state examination and position is already called "Studienrat", the old abbreviation z. A. is only managed internally, as the old job title was “Studienrat zur Employment”; However, these no longer exist. As of 2011, the trial period will no longer be three, but only two years.
Collective bargaining teachers can be authorized to use the job title “Studienrat im Arbeitsvertrag” (StR i. BV), but only if they have an open-ended contract in the public service and the general requirements for civil service (e.g. 1. and 2nd state examination).
In private school service the designation is called StR i. P. and in the church service StR i. K. Realschullehrer in civil service (on probation or lifetime) carry the official title "Studienrat im Realschuldienst" in Bavaria. Abbreviation: "StR (RS)". Realschule teachers with permanent employment can use the title "StR (RS) i.BV", which stands for "Studienrat im Realschuldienst in an employment relationship". Since then, special school teachers who are civil servants have been given the official title of "Studienrat in special school service". Abbreviation: "StR (FöS)". Similarly, permanent special school teachers can use the title "StR (FöS) i.BV" upon request.
Since July 1, 2013, there are also student councils at elementary and secondary schools in Bavaria. This is the second (non-functional) promotion office for teachers in elementary and middle schools.
historical ranking (1905):
- High school assistant
- High school teacher
- High school professor
- Academic Council
- Vice principal
- Rector (senior student council)
In Berlin the candidate is called a trainee student. Since 2004, prospective teachers in Berlin are no longer civil servants after passing the second state examination, so that the previous official title of “teacher” is no longer applicable to new employees. The current designation of the "office" when hired is Studienassessor.
In Hamburg, the official title of high school teachers in civil servant status on probation and for life is equally “Studienratsin / Studienrat”. In the case of fully trained teachers for the “teaching post at grammar schools” who cannot be officially appointed for health or other reasons (e.g. exceeding the age limit), the service title “employee in the activity of a student councilor “Set. The official title of "Studienratsin / Studienrat" is also given to teachers who are promoted from salary group A12 (official title: "Teacher") to A13 because of their prominent tasks. However, this does not result in any faculties for the upper school level.
In Hesse, the appointment to the teaching council takes place after allocation of a permanent position at a higher educational institution.
historical ranking (1905):
- Teaching qualification
- Teaching Assistant
- Senior teacher
- Headmaster, go
On the basis of the Lower Saxony Civil Service Act (NBG), which came into force on April 1, 2009 (§ 14 NBG, Access to Careers), since June 1, 2010, in Lower Saxony, in accordance with § 8 of the Lower Saxony Careers Ordinance (NLVO) - Education, appointments to the Academic Council , usually up to the age of 45, instead of successfully completing a legal clerkship (second state examination ), even after at least four years of professional experience outside of the teaching profession that was acquired “within or outside the public service”. Freelance activities can also be recognized after appropriate evidence. Technical condition of appointment is an academic Master degree or equivalent, not related to a school-based teacher training college degree , which can be divided into at least two approved in Lower Saxony subjects. The previous professional activity must be “technically linked to the university studies” and the applicant's ability to “professionally practice independently”. The Lower Saxony Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs recognizes the requirements for an appointment as a teacher in a civil service on probation. Corresponding applications are usually made through official channels via the Lower Saxony state school authority. During the maximum five-year probationary and probationary period up to the civil service for life, an educational-didactic qualification must be successfully completed while working at a Lower Saxony study seminar in accordance with § 13 paragraph 1 NLVO - Education . The pedagogical-didactic qualification and the simultaneous teaching assignment of the student council on probation may only be carried out in the subjects and school types for which a teaching qualification exists. By the end of the qualification measure, at least four counseling visits must be carried out by a study seminar or the school management. The headmaster decides on the question of probation or non-probation after the end of the probationary period. The civil service for life or the extension of the civil service probation period takes place on the basis of the official assessments by the state school authority. The Lower Saxony study seminars have an advisory say in didactic and pedagogical questions for so-called lateral entrants. Periods of professional activity within or outside the public service can be counted towards the probationary period in accordance with Section 19 Paragraph 2 Clause 2 NBG, "if the activity is equivalent in terms of the type and importance of the activity in the career". The minimum probationary period up to permanent civil servant status is one year. If the probationary period is shortened, an official assessment is sufficient in accordance with Section 19 (3) sentence 2 NBG . EU citizens are generally treated the same as German citizens when they are appointed.
In North Rhine-Westphalia, the official title of “Studienrat” is now independent of whether there is still a probationary civil service or for life. Previously, the official title was "Studienrat zur Employment", even earlier "Studienassessor".
Since January 2019, teachers under 42 years of age in Saxony have been given the status of civil servants and then use the official title "Studienrat".
- www.oeffentlicher-dienst.info , accessed on May 16, 2011
- Bavarian State Salary Act
- Rainer Bölling: Social history of the German teachers . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1983, ISBN 978-3-525-33489-8 ( limited preview in Google book search).
- Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG: The Ministry of Culture in its fields of activity: school, science, churches, arts and medicine - representation. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2010, ISBN 978-3-05-008903-4 , p. 87 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Jürgen Kocka: Bourgeoisie in the 19th century: economic citizens and educated citizens. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1995, ISBN 978-3-525-33598-7 , p. 201 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Archived copy ( memento of the original from August 13, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Archived copy ( memento of the original from September 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Lower Saxony Ministry of Culture Leaflet for direct lateral entry into the Lower Saxony school service at general schools, July 11, 2012, page 5.