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Coat of arms of the noble family Mensenkampff

Mensenkampff (originally Mensenkamp) is the surname of a German-Baltic aristocratic family that had lived in the Baltic States since the middle of the 17th century and whose ancestral origin was in Hameln . They placed themselves in the service of Swedish and Russian rule, were officers , lawyers , and local and regional politicians .


The origin of the sex lies in the old Hanseatic city of Lemgo in the county of Lippe . Here in 1569 the citizen Hermann Mensenkamp was mentioned in a document on the occasion of a testimony in 1586. He himself stated his age as around eighty, which suggests that he must have been born around 1515. A son of Hermann M. received a kind of scholarship to study theology from 1574 to 1579 from a Kaland foundation . This son was Jodocus Mensenkamp Lemgoviensis (also Justus (I.), † 1612) who had studied at the University of Helmstedt , was ordained in 1600 and was appointed pastor of Heyen and Frenken in the church in Heyen , this is where the lineage of the family began . His son Heinrich († 1670 buried in Hameln ) was matriculated in Helmstedt in 1616 and acquired citizenship in Hameln in 1624 , where he worked as a lawyer . His only son Justus (II.) (* 1628 in Hameln, † 1693 in Stockholm ) from the second marriage became the progenitor of the Livonian line. He was a lawyer and since 1655 court secretary in Tuckum in Courland , which was occupied by the Swedes and whose service he must have entered around 1660. He came into the service of the Swedish Count Oxenstierna and in 1664 served as the Count's administrator and assessor in Wenden . He later worked in Stockholm and died there in 1694. The descendants continued with his son Justus (III.). Justus (III.) (1675-1732) joined the Swedish military and was up to the captain transported, he got 1710 in Russian captivity and was to Siberia abducted, 1717, he performed with the same rank in the Imperial Russian Army one. Without documentary evidence, he was ennobled by Catherine I in 1725 , which meant that the Mensenkampffs were not included in the Livonian nobility register due to a lack of evidence . His son, who later became the Russian major general Johann Justus (1718–1784), had a new letter of nobility issued on April 11, 1774 and called himself from now on "von Mensenkampff". But since he could not prove any land holdings, he failed again in 1777 with an application for admission to the role of nobility. His two sons Gottlieb (1764-1835) and Jakob (1779-1825) were taken in 1806 with the number 329 as "von Mensenkampff". Johann Justus (IV.) (1718–1784) von Mensenkampff had 15 children from three marriages, the descendants of his fourth son Jakob continued the Livonian descendants. The district administrator Ernst von Mensenkampff († 1887), who was counted among the old liberal wing of the knighthood, stood out in particular .

Family table

Hermann Mensenkamp (around 1515 - 1586), citizen of Lemgo

  • Justus (I.) Mensenkamp († 1612 in Heyen), pastor
    • Heinrich Mensenkamp (buried in Hameln in 1670), lawyer
      • Justus (II.) Mensenkamp (* 1628 in Hameln, † 1693 in Stockholm), court assessor
        • Johann Justus (III.) Mensenkamp, ​​from 1774 von Mensenkampff (* 1732 in Mojahn ; † 1784 Aidenhof , Viljandi district ), Swedish and Russian captain, later Russian major general
          • Gottlieb Johann Justus von Mensenkampff (1764-1835), Russian major
            • Gotthard Bogdan von Mensenkampff (1806 - 1878), Russian lieutenant general
            • Gustav Johann Wilhelm Alexander von Mensenkampf (* 1795)
              • Eduard von Mensenkampff (1826-1886), Russian major general
          • Peter Johann von Mensenkampff (1766-1804), Russian cavalry master
          • Jakob Heinrich Justus (IV.) Von Mensenkampff (1779 - 1825) lineage in Livonia

Livonian lineage

Jakob Heinrich Justus (IV.) Von Mensenkampff (* 1779 at Aidenhof, † 1825 in Mitau ), lord of the royal court and Tarwast Castle , court assessor

  • Karl Justus (V.) von Mensenkampf (1808 - 1878), lord of the royal court, Tarwast Castle, Puderküll, Adsel-Koiküll, Kawast and Osthof, Livonian district administrator
    • Karl Justus (VI.) Von Mensenkampff (1808 - 1878), Lord of the Royal Court, Tarwast Castle, Puderküll, Adsel-Koiküll, Kawast and Osthof
      • Jakob Moritz Justus (VII.) Von Mensenkampff (1834 - 1913), Lord of Tarwast Castle, Adsel-Koiküll and Lannemetz, court assessor
        • Karl August von Mensenhof (* 1870), Lord of Tarwast Castle
          • Kurt Justus (VII.) (* 1902)
      • Ernst Adolph Wilhelm von Mensenkampff (* 1840 in Dorpat; † 1887 in Falkenstein (Taunus)), Lord of the Königshof, Puderküll, Osthof and Kawast, Livonian district administrator
        • Max Karl Alexander von Mensenkampff (* 1871 in Riga, † 1922 in Riga), lord of the royal court and Puderküll
          • Ernst Eduard von Mensenkampff (* 1896 in Pernau, missing in 1945), journalist and district administrator
            • Karl Ernst Otto Justus (IX.) Von Mensenkampff (* 1921 in Aschersleben)
        • Karl Friedrich Ernst von Mensenkampff (* 1876 in Riga), gentleman on the Osthof
          • Leon Justus (VIII.) Von Mensenkampff (* 1903 in Osthof)
          • Gert Karl von Mensenkampff (* 1906 at Osthof)

coat of arms

The von Mensenkampff had the following coat of arms after the diploma of April 11, 1774: On the blue coat of arms 3 (1: 2) eight-pointed silver stars . The small helmet shows, between two standards , red on the right and construction on the left, each with an eight-pointed star, a silver armored arm , which carries a silver eight-pointed star in its hand. The helmet cover is blue and silver.


Family mausoleum at Tarwast Castle (2010)

The former Tarwast Castle in Viljandi County is owned by the Mensenkampff family . Justus II had been the lien owner of the Lubbert-Renzen estate near Wenden since 1677 and the temporary possessions included: Kawast, Adsel-Koiküll and Lanemets (1919–1920), (1820) Tarwast Castle, (1818) Königshof (Latvia), 1840 Puderküll , 1876 Osthof (Ostrominsky).

Near the fortress of the Order of Tarvastu there is a classical burial chapel that was built at the beginning of the 19th century. The special thing about this building is its high, pyramid-like roof and the double columns on all four sides. It is the mausoleum of a male family member that his widow donated to him.


Web links

Commons : Mensenkampff  - Collection of images

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Court secretary = court clerk. In: Goethe Dictionary [1] , accessed February 8, 2019
  2. Coat of arms of the von Mensenkampf. In: Carl Arvid von Klingspor , Baltic Wappenbuch . Coats of arms of all noble families belonging to the knights of Livonia, Estonia, Courland and Oesel (1882)
  3. Puderküll, see et: Põllküla