Gluteus maximus muscle

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Gluteus maximus muscle
Gluteus maximus.png
Gluteus maximus muscle (shown in red)
superficial part :

low proportion:

Gluteus muscle roughening ( gluteal tuberosity ) and thigh fascia strips ( iliotibial tract )
Stretching ( extension ), outward rotation ( external rotation ), splaying ( abduction ) and approaching ( adduction ) in the hip joint
Inferior gluteus nerve
Spinal segments

The gluteus maximus muscle, gluteus maximus for short , also gluteus maximus muscle ( Latin for "largest gluteal muscle" or "large gluteal muscle") is a skeletal muscle of the lower extremity , more precisely the rear ( dorsal ) layer of the rear hip muscles. It is the largest muscle in humans in terms of volume and one of the most powerful. The gluteus large muscle covers the gluteus middle muscle ( gluteus medius muscle ) and the gluteus small muscle ( gluteus minimus muscle ).

In quadruped mammals , it is not the largest of the croup muscles; here it is called the superficial croup muscle ( gluteus superficialis muscle ) due to its superficial location . In cloven-hoofed animals , this muscle is fused with the two-headed thigh muscle ( Musculus biceps femoris ) and is called the Musculus gluteobiceps . In slaughtered animals, this is part of the lower shell .


The largest gluteus muscle is a large muscle with a wide range of origins and a strong attachment tendon.

According to its origin, it is divided into a superficial and a deep part. The superficial part arises from the iliac bone ( os ilium ), more precisely from the iliac crest ( crista iliaca ), from the posterior upper iliac spine ( spina iliaca posterior superior ), from the connective tissue covering ( fascia ) in the lumbar region ( fascia thoracolumbalis ) and from the back surface of the sacrum ( Os sacrum ) and the tailbone ( Os coccygis ). The deep portion takes its origin from the ilium ( Ala ossis ilium ), the band between the sacrum and the seat leg ( ischium ) ( sacrotuberous ligament ) and the fascia of the middle gluteal muscle ( aponeurosis glut (a) ea ).

The muscle fibers converge ( converge ) to form a strong joint tendon . This radiates into the iliotibial tract , a reinforcement line of the fascia lata on the outside of the thigh , and inserts into the roughening for the gluteal muscles on the thigh bone ( femur ) ( gluteal tuberosity ) and on the septum on the side of the thigh ( septum intermuscular femoris laterale ).

The recognition and support points of the muscle are characterized by long-range bursa ( bursae padded).

The blood supply is mainly via the inferior gluteal artery .


The effects of the gluteus muscle on the movement of the thigh in the hip joint are many and varied, depending on the muscle portion.

An indispensable among others to walk upright human function is the stretch ( extension ) in the hip joint and the stabilization of the femur in extension. The gluteus maximus is therefore the strongest extensors ( extensor ) of the hip joint and allows the extension of the upper body ( trunk ) of the flexion ( flexion ) as such. B. is the case when getting up from sitting. Therefore, the muscles of the quadruped mammals are much weaker.

Due to its various approaches, the muscle can act both as a spreader ( abductor ) and as a guide ( adductor ) of the leg: The upper, head-facing ( cranial ) part supports the other gluteal muscles in splaying ( abduction ) and tensions the fascia on the outer thigh . The lower ( caudal ) part towards the tail, on the other hand, supports the approach ( adduction ) of the thigh.

If the gluteus muscle contracts with the thigh locked (e.g. in the standing leg phase of walking), it comes to extension. It prevents tilting of the pelvis ( pelvis ) forward and for help. B. when climbing stairs.

The muscle also causes the thigh to rotate outwards ( external rotation ).


The muscle can be trained through targeted and repeated “typical” movements, for example by stretching the leg backwards and moving up and down while standing on four feet. In powerlifting , squats and deadlifts are powerful exercises for strengthening the gluteus muscle. In strength training , the muscle is also used by the leg press .

When standing, the large gluteal muscle lies above the ischial tuberosity ( tuber ischiadicum ). However, it is not squeezed when sitting because the lower edge of the muscle slides to the side.


Paralysis of the gluteus muscle has far-reaching consequences. Extension movements of the thigh in the hip joint are severely restricted, which means that walking, standing up, jumping and climbing stairs can hardly be carried out. Since the “straightening” function is no longer available, the body's center of gravity must remain behind the transverse plane, otherwise the body will tip over. The outward rotation is also severely weakened.

In chronic pressure overload of the muscle (mainly by sedentary activities) can inflammation of approach near bursa ( bursitis ) arise, the clinically Weber button are referred to elsewhere as Hauer button.

See also

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT). Terminologia Anatomica . Thieme, Stuttgart 1998
  2. ^ W. His: The anatomical nomenclature. Nomina Anatomica. The anatomical society on its IX. At the meeting in Basel . Veit & Comp., Leipzig 1895.
  3. F. Kopsch: The Nomina anatomica of the year 1895 (BNA) arranged according to the series of letters and compared to the Nomina anatomica of the year 1935 (INA) . 3. Edition. Georg Thieme Verlag, Leipzig 1941.
  4. ^ H. Stieve: Nomina Anatomica. Compiled by the Nomenclature Commission elected in 1923, taking into account the proposals of the members of the Anatomical Society, the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland, and the American Association of Anatomists, and reviewed by resolution of the Anatomical Society at the Jena conference in 1935 finally accepted. 4th edition. Publishing house Gustav Fischer, Jena 1949.
  5. W. Wachsmuth: Practical anatomy: a text and auxiliary book of anatomical practice . Volume 5, because of the push button as a follow-up to sedentary work,