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Classification according to ICD-10
G83.3 Monoparesis and monoplegia, unspecified
G82.0-2 Paraparesis and Paraplegia
G82.3-5 Tetraparesis and tetraplegia
ICD-10 online (WHO version 2019)

A paresis ( Greek πάρεσις páresis , German 'slack' ) is an incomplete paralysis , while complete (motor) paralysis is called paralysis or plegia . Sensitivity disorders (sensory disorders) are therefore not part of the paresis.

Pareses of the skeletal muscles are expressed as a reduction in effective muscle strength. They are mostly caused by neurological disorders , a basic distinction being made between two forms:

The term paresis is also used less often to refer to organs with smooth muscles . One example is the term gastroparesis for gastric paralysis .

to form


Monoparesis is an incomplete paralysis of a limb or a section of a limb.


Diparesis is an incomplete paralysis of two limbs (arm and leg) or a pair of limbs (both legs or arms).


Paraparesis is the incomplete paralysis of both legs (or, in animals, the hind legs), e.g. B. as a symptom of paraplegia with residual motor skills.


Hemiparesis is the incomplete paralysis of one side of the body (unilateral or hemiplegia). If the side of the body is completely paralyzed, it is called hemiplegia . Hemiparesis is caused by a central lesion (e.g. stroke ) and typically occurs on the contralateral (opposite) side of the damage, as the affected nerve pathways cross to the opposite side and the damage site is in front of this junction (see contralaterality of the forebrain ).


Tetraparesis (also quadriparesis ) is an incomplete paralysis of all four extremities . A distinction is made between spastic and flaccid tetraparesis. With flaccid tetraparesis, the muscle tone is reduced ( hypotonic ). Spastic tetraparesis show increased ( hypertonic ) muscle tone.

Spastic tetraparesis typically results from damage to the spinal cord or from early childhood brain damage . Less common is isolated damage to the pons . Flaccid tetraparesis can z. B. arise in the context of a Guillain-Barré syndrome .

If paralysis already occurs in infancy, there is a risk that secondary, vital stimuli cannot be absorbed due to the lack of movement opportunities . Often persist characterized the infantile reflexes such as the symmetric tonic neck reflex (STNR), the tonic labyrinth reflex (TLR) or the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR). Sufferers have problems with hand-eye coordination , bringing both hands together and crossing the middle of the body.

See also

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Pschyrembel , Clinical Dictionary . 258th edition (1997)
  2. Duden online defines paresis as “slight paralysis; motor weakness ".
  3. Peter Berlit : Basic knowledge of neurology. 5th edition. Jumper.