Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov

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Portrait of Tretyakov (painted by Ilya Repin ).
Postcard (1981)

Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov ( Russian Павел Михайлович Третьяков , scientific. Transliteration Pavel Michajlovič Tret'jakov * December 15 . Jul / 27. December  1832 greg. In Moscow , † December 4 . Jul / 16th December  1898 . Greg ibid) was a Russian merchant , art patron and art collector. From his extensive art collection, the Tretyakov Gallery , which he was named after , arose .


In the 1850s he inherited his father's business together with his younger brother Sergei Mikhailovich Tretyakov . Together with their brother-in-law Vladimir Dmitrijewitsch Konschin they founded the joint company Business for Russian and Foreign Linen , Wool and Paper Goods of the trading house Brothers P. and S. Tretyakov and W. Konschin in Moscow and operated a flourishing trade in flax , fabrics and sales of textiles. He became a co-founder of the Moscow Commercial Bank and the Moscow Industrial and Trading Company . He acquired a considerable fortune, which he initially invested primarily in real estate .

Also in the 1850s, he began collecting art objects. He started with paintings by the Dutch old masters . The goal he set himself was to found a Russian national gallery. The most valuable and outstanding works, mainly by contemporary artists, were found in his collection. Since the 1870s he has mainly bought works by the artists of the Peredwischniki migrant movement . He acquired the paintings at exhibitions or directly from the painter. At times he bought entire series of paintings. In 1874, for example, he acquired the Turkestan series from Wassili Wassiljewitsch Wereschtschagin , which consisted of 13 paintings, 133 figures and statues and 81 studies. In his collection there were also around 80 studies by Alexander Andrejewitsch Ivanov . In 1885 Tretyakov acquired 102 pictures from Polenow , which he had made during his travels through Turkey , Egypt , Syria and Palestine .

Tretyakov owned the complete collections of the painters Perow , Kramskoi , Repin , Surikow and Levitan . At the same time he began to acquire paintings by the old masters from the 18th and early 19th centuries. He also began collecting illustrations in the 1870s. From 1890 he also started collecting icons . On the other hand, his collection of sculptures is marginal .

Initially, the gallery was located in Tretyakov's house on Lavruschenski pereulok . However, the growth of the collection soon made extensive renovations necessary. From 1881 his gallery became increasingly well known; as early as 1885 there were 30,000 visitors. After Tretyakov inherited a collection of Western European paintings from his brother in 1892 , the gallery expanded again. At that time, the gallery was already one of the largest museums in Russia and one of the sights of Moscow.

In 1892 Tretyakov bequeathed his own collection as well as that of his recently deceased brother and the building to the city of Moscow. A year later, the museum was officially opened under the name Pawel and Sergei Tretyakov City Gallery .

Tretyakov was actively involved in charity in addition to his art collection . He donated money to support educational activities. In addition, he supported the families of the victims of the Crimean War and the Russo-Turkish War . He supported artists in securing their livelihood, for example through commissioned works, and supported young Russian artists in the form of grants. With his brother Sergej he founded the Moscow Arnoldo Tretyakov School for the deaf and mute .

Pavel Tretyakov died on December 16, 1898 in Moscow.

Web links

Commons : Pavel Tretyakov  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Ненарокомова И. С .: Почётный гражданин Москвы . Молодая гвардия, Moscow 1978, p. 223 .