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Weighing as part of early detection

The Pediatrics or paediatrics is the study of the development of childhood and adolescent organism , its diseases and their treatment and prevention. The term pediatrics ( ancient Greek παιδιατρική [τέχνη] paidiatriké [téchne] "the pediatric [art]", from παῖς pais "child" and ἰατρός iatros "doctor") was first introduced in 1880 by William Oslerics in English as "pediatrics" .

The pediatric medicine practiced by the "pediatrician" is now also referred to as a specialty as child and adolescent medicine . Pediatric and adolescent medicine today covers all areas of clinical medicine . One of its peculiarities is the strong emphasis on preventive measures to maintain health ( preventive medicine ) than in any other clinical discipline.


In the version dated January 30, 2008, the further training regulations of the Medical Association allow four main competencies for pediatricians:

  1. Children hematology and Oncology - deals with the blood and cancer in children
  2. Pediatric cardiology - diagnosis and non-operative treatment of congenital heart defects, acquired heart defects, cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac muscle diseases
  3. Neonatology - care for premature babies and sick newborns. Sub-area focused on intensive care medicine (see also Perinatology , Perinatal Center ).
  4. Neuropediatrics - diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the children's nervous system

In addition, the further training regulations provide for a large number of additional training courses, five of which require a completed training as a pediatrician, and pediatric orthopedics represents additional training for specialists in trauma surgery and orthopedics:

  1. Pediatric endocrinology and diabetology deals with diseases of the child 's endocrine system and the care of diabetic children
  2. Pediatric gastroenterology - diagnosis and non-operative treatment of diseases in the digestive system
  3. Pediatric nephrology - responsible for kidney diseases if no surgery is necessary
  4. Children's pulmonology - deals with childhood lung diseases, primarily bronchial asthma
  5. Children's rheumatology - diagnosis and treatment of chronic and inflammatory diseases of the musculoskeletal system
  6. Pediatric orthopedics - disorders and diseases of the children's musculoskeletal system
Child and infant ward after the Second World War in the Catholic Clinic in Essen

Social pediatrics , which deals with the comprehensive care of children with developmental disorders , has an independent significance . It does not appear as a separate focus or additional training designation. Pediatricians working in social pediatrics are usually trained in neuropediatrics. This department cooperates closely with doctors and institutions in child and adolescent psychiatry , which is an independent subject with its own training regulations. In Switzerland , social pediatrics largely corresponds to developmental pediatrics , which is a focus and core area of ​​Swiss child and adolescent medicine.

Another subject that is closely linked to pediatric and adolescent medicine is human genetics , a research subject of clinical science. It makes a significant contribution to the diagnosis of hereditary diseases. Many paediatricians use the additional designation human genetics, which is not limited to the group of pediatricians.

Child and adolescent medicine is a non-operating subject. Therefore, modern facilities of child and adolescent medicine are networked with operative specialist groups. The pediatric surgery is a separate specialization as the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, while the pediatric orthopedics an additional title of specialist in orthopedics and trauma surgery is.


Training and recognition as a specialist in pediatric and adolescent medicine is regulated on a country-specific basis. In Germany, this includes at least five years of further training, of which a maximum of six months in a non-specialist area (basic further training) or twelve months in child and adolescent psychiatry or pediatric surgery . At least the rest of the time must be completed with pediatricians who are appropriately authorized for further training. A catalog with further training content must also be proven during this training. Specialized competencies and additional qualifications require additional training in specially authorized institutions and can only be acquired after further specialist training. As with specialist training, the contents and times of training are also determined by the medical associations.

Authorization to use a specialist, specialty or additional designation is usually granted by the relevant regional medical association in accordance with the respective regulations of the regional medical associations after an oral examination before a specialist committee .

In the German Democratic Republic (GDR), pediatric specialists who worked in the school medical field had the option of continuing education to become a youth doctor based on an additional two-year course .

Pediatricians in private practice in Germany are usually between 40 and 60 years old. Around 85 percent of prospective paediatricians in Germany are female.


see main article: History of Pediatrics


See also



  • Peter Emmerich, Friedrich Carl Sitzmann, Hans Truckenbrodt (Hrsg.): Pediatric emergencies . Founded by Bernhard de Rudder and Adolf Windorfer . 11th edition. Thieme, Stuttgart a. a. 1989, ISBN 3-13-391911-3 .
  • Stefan Illig and Martin Claaßen (eds.): Klinikleitfaden Pädiatrie , Urban & Fischer Verlag / Elsevier GmbH, Munich 2017, 10th edition, ISBN 978-3-437-17290-8 .
  • Dietmar Wigger, Markus Stange: Medicines in Pediatrics, including Neon Catalog / Intensive Care Medicine , Urban & Fischer Verlag, Munich and Jena 2007, ISBN 978-3-437-21452-3
  • B. Koletzko: Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 13th edition. Heidelberg 2007.

Web links

Wikibooks: Pediatrics  - Learning and Teaching Materials
Wiktionary: Pediatrics  - explanations of meanings, origins of words, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Pediatrics  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. MK Hostetter: What we don't see. In: New England Journal of Medicine. Volume 366, 2012, pp. 1328-1334.
  2. Facts & Figures. In: Retrieved May 5, 2018 .
  3. Julia Koch: Nowhere is everywhere . In: Der Spiegel . No. 24 , 2013, p. 108-110 ( online ).
  4. German Society for Child and Adolescent Medicine e. V .: history. Retrieved May 5, 2018 .
  5. ^ German Society for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy
  6. Primary Care
  7. Homepage - DGAAP. Retrieved May 5, 2018 .
  8. Professional association of paediatricians
  9. Facts & Figures. In: Retrieved May 5, 2018 .
  10. ^ German Academy for Child and Adolescent Medicine
  11. Our Vision & Mission. European Academy of Paediatrics - The Pediatric Section of UEMS, accessed May 5, 2018 .
  12. Dominik A. Ewald, Gottfried Huss, Silke Auras, Juan Ruiz-Canela Caceres, Adamos Hadjipanayis: Development of a core set of quality indicators for pediatric primary care practices in Europe, COSI-PPC-EU . In: European Journal of Pediatrics . April 14, 2018, ISSN  0340-6199 , p. 1-13 , doi : 10.1007 / s00431-018-3140-z .
  13. Primary Care Pediatrics. Retrieved May 5, 2018 .
  15. ↑ The chairman is Dirk Mentzer, head of the drug safety department at the Paul Ehrlich Institute