The Subbotniki ( Russian субботники , German : Sabbatians ) is originally from Russia coming Mosaic religious community . The self-designation is also people of the law of Moses . In terms of religious history, they are part of the movement that spread across Russia from Novgorod as Judaizing religious groups from the second half of the 15th century . They formed a mixture of late medieval Kabbalism and early Neoplatonic humanism.
The Subbotniki first appeared around 1796 under Catherine II . They came from Russian peasant families ( serfs ) and were native to the Voronezh , Oryol , Moscow , Tula and Saratov areas until 1820 . Under the reign of Alexander I , there was greater religious freedom and the Subbotniki were able to lead a more carefree life. Persecution by the Russian Orthodox Church ended with an agreement according to which the Subbotniki made payments for births and weddings even after they left the church. The Tsar allowed the Subbotniki to practice their religion openly, but not to serve among Christians. This policy of tolerance ended under Nicholas I after numerous Subbotniki had invaded the Jewish Pale of Settlement in order to expand their knowledge of Judaism. When attempts to persuade the Sabbatians to return to the Russian Orthodox Church were unsuccessful, they were exiled to Siberia and the southern Caucasus from 1826 . Through their influence on the Black Sea and the Volga, they were able to facilitate the Seventh-day Adventist mission among the Russians (the first Adventists in Russia were Russian-Germans ).
Before the First World War , there were Subbotniki among the Cossacks who tried to protect Jewish communities from pogroms .
The Subbotniki (Subbota = Russian for Saturday) observe the Sabbath as a weekly rest day and usually, but not always, celebrate circumcision instead of baptism . There are various groups among them. Most Subbotniki completely reject the New Testament and wait for a Messiah to live like a king on earth, other Subbotniki teach both the Old and New Testaments and recognize Jesus Christ as a prophet , but not as the Son of God because he preached the gospel but did not redeem all people. The latter, however, place the New Testament on a lower level than the Old Testament. Icons are rejected by the Subbotniki community.
The Subbotniki can emigrate to Israel under the Return Law applicable to Jews and are generally recognized as Jews in Israel.
Subbotniki now live in the following countries:
- Jewish Autonomous Oblast (200)
- Irkutsk Oblast (7,000)
- United States
- Entry on jewishencyclopedia.com (English)
- Information page about the Subbotniki (English)
- Subbotniki (Cубботники) - An Introduction (English)
- Rabbi Eliyahu Birnbaum: A Universal Jew. In villages across the expanses of Southern Russia live many Jews, the descendents of Subbotnik converts. Alexander Zaid, Alexander Penn, Raful and perhaps, even Trumpeldor are their descendents. Website Shavei Israel (English)
- ↑ Eitan Rabin: Sharon Orders To Bring Subbotniks to Israel ( Memento of the original from November 27, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Shavei Israel website , March 22, 2005, accessed March 19, 2010