The ulcer or ulcer ( plurality ulcers or ulcers ), German ulcer (medium high German geswër , "ulcer, abscess, tumor," related to Schwär of medium high German Swer "physical pain disease, ulcer, tumor"), referred to in medicine a "Deep-lying substance defect" of the skin or a mucous membrane , which is not traumatic but z. B. infectious , ischemic or immunological etiology (origin). The term “ wound ”, on the other hand, also includes substance defects of traumatic origin.
More superficial defects are called erosion (the upper epidermal layers are affected here ) or excoriation (all layers of the epidermis are affected, including the basement membrane ), see also efflorescence . Such defects can also be of traumatic origin (for example abrasions). What breaks through the basement membrane (the boundary between epidermis and dermis ) is generally referred to as a deep wound - or if it is atraumatic, an ulcer.
Because the presence of an intact basal cell layer ( stratum germinativum , the basement membrane as a single-layer epithelium) is necessary for scarless healing , in contrast to the more superficial defects, scarless healing is no longer possible in ulcers .
The development of an ulcer is called ulceration . The cause can be circulatory disorders, infections (possibly with secretion of pus ) or tumors , or a combination of these factors (e.g. in diabetes mellitus ). Ulcerations are often symptoms of general illnesses and are often multiple.
- Ulcus cruris (open leg, lower leg ulcer , mostly due to venous or mixed arterial-venous insufficiency)
- Malum perforans (pressure sore on the feet in a polyneuropathy )
- Ulcus (cruris) hypertonicum ( Martorell syndrome )
- Ulcus ventriculi ( gastric ulcer , more precisely: gastric wall ulcer )
- Duodenal ulcer (ulcer of the duodenum )
- Pressure ulcer ( decubitus ) with insufficient perfusion of the tissue due to chronic pressure effects
- Ulcus durum (hard chancre), the primary effect in syphilis
- Ulcus molle (soft chancre), a sexually transmitted disease
- Radiation ulcer or radiologic ulcer
- Carcinomatosum ulcer (cancerous ulcer)
- Rodent ulcer or terebran ulcer in a basalioma
- Ulcus corneae (corneal ulcer)
- Aphthe (ulcer of the lining of the mouth or gums)
- Ulcus arteriosum (arterial ulcer)
- Venous ulcer (venous ulcer)
- Alphabetical index to the ICD-10-WHO version 2019, volume 3. German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI), Cologne, 2019, p. 902
- Friedrich Kluge , Alfred Götze : Etymological dictionary of the German language . 20th edition. Edited by Walther Mitzka . De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1967; Reprint (“21st unchanged edition”) ibid 1975, ISBN 3-11-005709-3 , pp. 653 and 689.