Peru capuchin monkey ( Cebus cuscinus )
|Erxleben , 1777|
The uncrowned capuchins ( Cebus ) are a primate genus from the group of the New World monkeys . They are forest-dwelling, omnivorous animals that live in groups. Unheated capuchins are found in Central and Northern South America. Their distribution area extends from Honduras to the Amazon basin .
Bare capuchins are medium-sized primates weighing around 2 to 3 kg for females and 3 to 4 kg for males. The trunk is slim, the front and rear limbs are approximately the same length. The fingers are short and the thumb is opposable , which makes these primates very skilled at hand. The tail can be grasped, but is not a fully developed grasping tail with a hairless skin area, as occurs in the spotted monkeys. The color of the fur is variable, mostly the trunk is kept in brown or black tones.
|Skull of a brown capuchin ( Cebus olivaceus ) with the typical missing crest||compared to the skull of Sapajus robustus with a typical of the genus Sapajus formed crown comb|
From Sapajus ( Gehaubte Capuchins ), the second capuchin monkey species that Ungehaubten can Capuchins above all by the absence of the typical for the Gehaubten Capuchin tuft on the top of the head, the absence of their beards and longer compared to the Gehaubten Capuchins arms and legs can be distinguished. The latter gives the unhealed Capuchins an overall more graceful appearance. Other differences concern the skull morphology. They do not have a crest , which is present in all species of the genus Sapajus , but varies in size depending on the species. Their eye sockets are larger and wider, their aperture piriformis (the opening of the facial skull to the nasal cavity) is just as high as it is wide (in Sapajus, higher than it is wide). The zygomatic arch is graceful in the unhealed Capuchin and strongly developed in the hooded Capuchin. The canine teeth of the uncut capuchin are long and relatively thin, while those of the capuchin are short and robust.
Where hooded and hooded capuchins live together, this is especially the case in the Amazon basin, where hooded capuchins form larger groups and tend to live in the layer of low trees. Use of tools has not yet been observed in unheated Capuchins. In contrast, it is omnipresent in hooded capuchins that occur in drier habitats, but so far there is also no evidence of their congeners in rainforests.
The genus of the unhealed capuchin is currently (January 2015) divided into 14 species.
- The Ecuador capuchin monkey ( Cebus aequatorialis , Syn . : C. albifrons aequatorialis ) lives in western Ecuador.
- The white-fronted capuchin ( Cebus albifrons ) lives in northern South America.
- The Venezuela capuchin monkey ( Cebus brunneus , Syn .: C. olivaceus brunneus , C. albifrons trinitatis ), coastal region of Venezuela and Trinidad
- The white-shouldered capuchin ( Cebus capucinus ) is one of the most famous species and lives in northwestern Ecuador, Colombia and eastern Panama.
- The Rio Cesar capuchin monkey ( Cebus cesarae , Syn .: C. albifrons cesarae ) northern Andes
- The Peruvian Capuchin Monkey ( Cebus cuscinus , Syn .: C. albifrons cuscinus ) Bolivia, Acre , Peru
- The Panama Capuchin Monkey ( Cebus imitator ) Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and western Panama
- The Kaapori Capuchin ( Cebus kaapori ) used to be a subspecies of the Brown Capuchin. It lives in a small area in Brazil ( Pará and Maranhão ) and is considered threatened.
- The white-headed capuchin monkey ( Cebus leucocephalus , Syn .: C. albifrons leucocephalus ) northern Colombia (catchment area of the Río Magdalena )
- The Santa Marta Capuchin ( Cebus malitiosus , Syn .: C. albifrons malitiosus ) lives in northern Colombia ( Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the surrounding area).
- The brown capuchin ( Cebus olivaceus ) lives in the mountains of Guiana .
- The Spix-Capuchin Monkey ( Cebus unicolor ) southern Amazonia
- The Colombian Capuchin Monkey ( Cebus versicolor , Syn .: C. albifrons versicolor ) northern Andes
- The Marañon Capuchin Monkey ( Cebus yuracus , Syn .: C. albifrons yuracus ) in the western Amazon
Systematics and evolution
The last common ancestor of all capuchin monkeys probably lived in the late Miocene , about 6.2 million years ago. The unhealed Capuchins likely developed in the Amazon basin and from there spread towards Central America.
- JW Lynch Alfaro, JS Silva, AB Rylands: How Different Are Robust and Gracile Capuchin Monkeys? An Argument for the Use of Sapajus and Cebus. In: American Journal of Primatology. Volume 74, Issue 4, April 2012, pp. 273-286. doi: 10.1002 / ajp.22007
- JP Boubli, AB Rylands, IP Farias, ME Alfaro, JW Lynch Alfaro: Cebus Phylogenetic Relationships: A Preliminary Reassessment of the Diversity of the Untufted Capuchin Monkeys. In: American Journal of Primatology. 74, 2012, pp. 381-394.
- Cebus Erxleben, 1777 at ITIS
- Russell A. Mittermeier , Anthony B. Rylands, Don E. Wilson : Primates. (= Handbook of the Mammals of the World. 3.). Lynx, Barcelona 2013, ISBN 978-84-96553-89-7 , pp. 406-413.