Fat milk is in Germany established sales description for untreated, ie raw milk . Preferred milk may only be produced by state-approved and controlled preferred milk companies. It is filtered immediately after milking and cooled to 4 ° C. Preferred milk is not homogenized , ultra-high-temperature or pasteurized and has a different taste from treated milk . During storage, a layer of cream forms on the surface , which can be removed by shaking or stirring before consumption.
In contrast to normal raw milk, which can only be dispensed “ ex-farm ”, there are almost no restrictions on the place of dispensing for preferred milk. However, preferred milk may only be placed on the market in suitable packaging. In addition, the regulatory requirements for extraction and marketing exceed those that have to be observed when selling raw milk “ex-farm”. The word “raw milk”, the use-by date and the note “Store at a maximum of + 8 ° C” must be affixed to the packaging, whereby the use-by date must not exceed a period of 96 hours after collection. Preferred milk is therefore regarded as a “milk with guaranteed properties”.
Since the introduction of pasteurization of milk, there have been people who question the nutritional value of (heat) treated milk and have returned to consuming raw milk. The main arguments of the proponents of untreated milk are:
- Raw milk has a higher nutritional value.
- Raw milk contains valuable enzymes and antibodies .
- Raw milk has a lactobacilli flora.
- The consumption of raw milk leads to an increased willingness to defend against diseases .
However, pasteurization has been shown to result in only a very small loss of fat-soluble vitamins ( vitamins A , D and E ), while a negative effect on other nutrients cannot be proven. Enzymes and antibodies are inactivated (" denatured ") by heat treatment , but when raw milk is consumed, the same effect occurs through protein digestion in the stomach . Dairy products made with lactobacilli (for example yogurt ) can be found in large numbers on the market. An improved willingness to defend against illnesses after consumption of raw milk has not been proven. In 1974, the Federal Health Council assessed in its vote on the subject of the " nutritional value of raw milk compared to the health risks" that "the consumption of raw milk offers no nutritional benefits, but that it represents a health risk for humans compared to the consumption of heated milk". This risk can "only be reduced to an acceptable minimum through a considerable, costly investigation and monitoring of the raw milk suppliers". The potential dangers of consuming raw milk come from pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella , Campylobacter , Yersinia , Listeria and Escherichia coli . These can not only occur in raw milk, they can also be reproduced in milk and milk products. There are many reports that raw milk has been found to be a source of disease outbreaks. As with other unpasteurized raw milk products ( raw milk cheese ), pregnant women, small children and people with a weakened immune system are not advised to consume it.
Requirements for the producing companies
Preferred milk must be produced and distributed under special hygienic conditions. As a relevant legal norm, the ordinance on hygiene requirements for the production, treatment and placing on the market of certain foods of animal origin (Animal Food Hygiene Ordinance - Tier-LMHV) has been established since 2007 (as was previously the ordinance on hygiene and quality requirements for milk and products Milk base ) strict requirements for production facilities. The milk, the animals and the people involved in the production are checked monthly. This includes an examination of the milk of each individual cow for bacteriological and cytological pathogens. There are considerably stricter limit values here than when milk is delivered to a dairy. If these are exceeded during the monthly inspection, the veterinary office can suspend or withdraw the approval of the establishment. More stringent requirements are also placed on equipping the company with sanitary facilities. Filling must take place in a separate room in accordance with the requirements for heat-treated milk. Pre-packs as well as closed jugs and similar containers are permitted for packaging.
- ME Potter, AF Kaufmann, PA Blake, RA Feldman: Unpasteurized milk. The hazards of a health fetish. In: JAMA , 1984 Oct 19; 252 (15): 2048-52. PMID 6481912 .
- JT Lejeune, PJ Rajala-Schultz: Food safety: unpasteurized milk: a continued public health threat. In: Clin Infect Dis , 2009 Jan 1; 48 (1): 93-100. DOI: 10.1086 / 595007 . PMID 19053805 .
- Lower Saxony State Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety : Milk from the farm and preferred milk - a comparison
- Federal association of preferred milk producers and direct marketers of milk and dairy products: What does the legislation say?
- Federal association of preferred milk producers and direct marketers of milk and dairy products: Overview of the suppliers of preferred milk in Germany
- Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR): Raw milk: Boiling protects against infections In: Press release , May 20, 2014.
- Animal Food Hygiene Regulation - Tier-LMHV.
- Federal Association of Preferred Milk Producers and Direct Markers of Milk and Dairy Products (BVDM): Preferred Milk = Excellent Milk ( Memento of the original from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed October 27, 2013.
- Except: facilities for communal catering, cf. Tier-LMHV.
- Josef Kerber: Direct marketing of food: Marketing concepts in the agricultural direct marketing of milk using the example of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. , Diplomica Verlag, 2014; P. 22. ISBN 9783958505575 .
- Marcus Specker: Investigations on the occurrence of Listeria, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Staphylococci in raw milk in the state of Brandenburg . Freie Univ., Berlin 1996, p. 80–83 ( full text - dissertation).
- Milk: Left natural, it can make children sick. February 13, 2002, archived from the original on September 13, 2008 ; Retrieved April 2, 2013 (Health Risks for Children from Untreated Milk).
- Information from the Bavarian Ministry of Consumer Protection , accessed on October 27, 2013.