Adamaua Ubangi languages
The Adamaua-Ubangi languages form a sub-unit of the North Volta-Congo languages , which in turn belong to the Niger-Congo language family . The approximately 160 languages are spoken by seven to eight million people in an area that stretches from northwest Nigeria via northern Cameroon , southern Chad , the Central African Republic , northern Gabon and both Congo states to the southwest of South Sudan extends.
Sango is a creole language based on the Ubangi language Ngbandi as the lingua franca of the Central African Republic it is used by up to 5 million speakers. Other major languages are Zande , Ngbaka , Gbaya , Mumuye , Mundang and Tupuri .
Adamaua-Ubangi consists of two separate subgroups - Adamaua and Ubangi - which form a genetic sub-unit of 160 languages with around eight million speakers within the northern Volta Congo , of which two million are Adamaua and five to six million Ubangi. Speaker. Joseph Greenberg (1949) was the first to combine Adamaua and Ubangi into a genetic unit (initially under the name Adamaua-East ) and positioned them as a subunit of the Central Niger-Congo .
The division of this unit into Adamaua and Ubangi can be justified linguistically by a few differences: phonologically by a different syllable structure (Adamaua languages tend to have closed syllables, which are rare in the Ubangi languages), lexically by special ones for one or the other group characteristic lexemes (Boyd 1989). However, Bennett (1983) sees more of a language continuum across both subgroups, which makes a clear separation between “Adamaua” and “Ubangi” appear problematic, especially since the lexicostatistical deviations within both groups are very high.
The following classification largely follows Boyd (1989) and Kleinewillinghöfer (1996), all individual languages are listed. The basis of the classification is the web link given below.
Adamaua (89 languages with 2 million speakers)
- Leko: Samba Leko (50 thousand), Mumbake (20 thousand), Wom (5 thousand), Kolbila (2.5 thousand)
- Dii: Duru (Dii) (50 thousand), Duupa (5 thousand), Pape (7 thousand), Saa (4 thousand)
- Duli †
- Voko-Doyayo: Kutin (20 thousand), Doyayo (20 thousand), Gimme (3 thousand), Gimnime (3 thousand); Vere (Mom Jango) (90k), Koma (25k); Voko (2.5 thousand)
- Central: Kare (100 thousand), Pana (80 thousand), Karang (20 thousand), Nzambay (30 thousand); Kuo (15k)
- North: Tupuri (220 thousand), Mundang (200 thousand), Mambai (2.5 thousand); Mono (1,000), Dama, Ndai (almost †)
- South: Mbum (50k)
- Otherwise : Laka (Godogodo) (5 thousand), Dek, Pam; To ( ritual language )
- Bua: Bua (8 thousand), Fania (Mana), Gula Iro (4 thousand), Bon Gula (1 thousand), Zan Gula (4 thousand), Bolgo (2 thousand), Koke (600), Noy (almost †),
Niellim (5 thousand), Tunia (2 thousand)
- Kim: Kim ('Masa') (15 thousand), Besme (1 thousand), Goundo (almost †)
- Day : Day (50 thousand)
- Awak: Awak (6 th.), Kamo (20 th.)
- Waja-Tula: Waja (60 th.), Tula (30 th.), Bangwinji (6 th.)
- Cham-Mona: Dijim-Bwilim (Cham-Mwana) (25 thousand), Lotsu-Piri (15 thousand)
- Dadija: Dadija (30 thousand)
- Longuda ( 30k )
- Yungur-Mboi: Yungur (Bena) (100 thousand), Lala-Roba (50 thousand), Voro; Mboi (20k), Libo (Kaan) (10k)
- Jen-Munga: Bambuka (5 thousand), Loo (8 thousand), Burak (4 thousand), Jen (Dza) (6 thousand), Leelau (Munga) (5 thousand), Gwomo (5 thousand) ), Panyam (Mak), Maghdi (2 thousand), Mingang Doso (3 thousand), Kapawa (Tha) (1 thousand)
- Kam (Yimwom) (5k)
- Fali (40k)
- Kwa (Baa) (7k)
- Gueve †
- La'bi ( ritual language )
- Oblo ( 5k )
Ubangi (89 languages with 5.5 million speakers)
- Central: Gbaya-Bossangoa (180 thousand), Gbaya-Bozoum (35 thousand); Gbanu (100 thousand), Bokoto (25 thousand)
- East: Ngbaka (1 million), Manza (250 thousand), Ali (35 thousand), Bofi (25 thousand), Bonjo
- Northwest: Gbaya (Northwest Gbaya) (300k)
- Southwest: Southwest Gbaya ( 180k ), Bangadu ( 3k )
- Suma (50 thousand)
- Central: Bambari (180 thousand), Banda (ieS) (100 thousand), Mono (70 thousand), Mbres (45 thousand), Ndele (35 thousand); Central-South Banda (100 thousand), Gobu (10 thousand), Kpagua (4 thousand), Ngundu; Togbo-Vara (25 thousand); Yangere (25 thousand)
- South-Central: Ngbugu (South-Central Banda) (150k), Langbashe (50k)
- West-Central Banda (10 thousand)
- South Banda: Mbanza (200k)
- Southwest: Ngbundu (20k)
- Ngbandi: Ngbandi (200 thousand), Yakoma (100 thousand), Dendi (10 thousand), Gbayi (5 thousand);
Sango ( Creole language : 350,000 native speakers, 5 million with second speakers)
- Sere: Ndogo (20 thousand), Sere (2.5 thousand), Tagbu, Belanda Viri (20 thousand), Bai (3 thousand); Feroge ( 1,000 ), Mangayat (400); Indri (700), Togoyo †
- East: Mayogo (100k), Bangba ( 10k ), Mundu ( 25k )
- West: Ngbaka Ma'bo (150k), Gilima (12k); Gbanziri (15 thousand), Buraka (3 thousand);
Monzombo (15 thousand), Kpala (3 thousand), Yango (3 thousand); Baka (30 thousand), Gundi (10 thousand), Ganzi (2 thousand), Ngombe (2 thousand), Bomassa
- Mba-Amadi: Mba (20 thousand), Dongo (5 thousand), Ndunga (3 thousand); Amadi (Ma) (5k)
Some pygmy peoples of the equatorial rainforest also speak Ubangi languages, such as the Babinga, Bamassa, Bayaka, Ganzi, Gundi and Mbakka. To and La'bi are secret ritual languages for male initiation cults.
The Adamaua languages have so far been poorly researched, the major Ubangi languages somewhat better. The nominal class system is reduced, class suffixes are used, concordance is partially present, in some languages only traces of the class system are preserved. Verbal extensions are not very common; they are common for iteratives , benefactives, and causatives . The normal sentence order is SVO, only prepositions are used. The particular noun stands in front of his attributes , ie before the genitive attribute , adjective attribute , numerals and demonstrative , in the Ubangi languages the adjective can also stand in front of his noun.
- Joseph Greenberg: The Languages of Africa. Mouton, The Hague and Indiana University Center, Bloomington 1963.
- Bernd Heine and others (ed.): The languages of Africa. Buske, Hamburg 1981.
- Bernd Heine and Derek Nurse (eds.): African Languages. An Introduction. Cambridge University Press 2000.
- John Bendor-Samuel (Ed.): The Niger-Congo Languages: A Classification and Description of Africa's Largest Language Family. University Press of America, Lanham, New York, London 1989. Therein: Raymond Boyd: Adamawa-Ubangi.
- Ulrich Kleinewillinghöfer: The northwestern Adamawa languages. Frankfurter Afrikanistische Blätter 8, 1996.