Apothecary garden

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Apothecary garden on the Nunzenberg ( Kressbronn am Bodensee )

A pharmacist garden (also medicinal garden , medicinal plant garden , medical garden , Latin hortus medicus ) is a herb garden in which medicinal and poisonous plants , but also aromatic plants , which are used as drugs for the production of medicinal products , can be found.


The apothecary garden goes back to the monastery gardens of the Middle Ages , in which plants were also grown for medicinal purposes. In addition to a herb garden , the medieval medicinal garden also contained, in addition to the typical medicinal plants, other plants that were thought to have medicinal properties (for example celery, lupins and spinach), as well as plants and herbs that gave flavor and (as “salsamenta”) herbs (such as dill, garlic) , Marjoram, lozenge and sage). Since the 16th century they were also created by pharmacists, for example in 1539 by Johannes Ralla in Leipzig and in 1540 in the Free Imperial City of Nuremberg by the owner of the pharmacy Zum Weißen Schwan , Georg Öllinger. He also supplied the botanists Hieronymus Bock and Otto Brunfels with rare plants from their own breeding. Also in Nuremberg in 1613, the Hortus Eystettensis was created by Basilius Besler as the first botanical work by a pharmacist. Besler had previously restored the overgrown garden of Doctor Camerarius and recorded the existence. At the end of the 16th century, the Ratsapotheke in Hanover also had two gardens that were so large that several gardeners were permanently employed there from the 17th century. During the baroque period the creation of such gardens became a real quirk, but it also served the serious study of botany. Examples of medicinal plants that were grown back then but are no longer used today are delphinium, columbine, poppy, iris and the white lily. At this time, botanical gardens were also created in Berlin and Halle , which were laid out as model gardens for practical medicine and medicinal gardens. Kurt Sprengel made the garden in Halle famous all over Europe.

But also monasteries housed pure pharmacist gardens, which in the case of Seligenstadt Abbey is documented by a copper engraving by Johann Stridbeck from 1712. Abbot Peter IV founded a monastery pharmacy there in the early 18th century, which served to supply the entire area. A historic pharmacy and the garden with around 200 medicinal plants, sorted according to application, are now open to the public again. After a short flowering, such monastery pharmacies disappeared very quickly in the course of secularization from 1803 onwards.

Entrance to the pharmacy garden in Planten un Blomen , Hamburg

Some pharmacists continue to maintain pharmacist gardens, for example as a teaching garden for trainees, interns and laypeople. There are also pharmacist gardens as part of botanical gardens , public and private green spaces and in museums such as the LWL open-air museum in Detmold and the city museum Wendlingen am Neckar .

The establishment and operation of around 20 pharmacist gardens has been funded throughout Germany by the Klosterfrau Healthcare Group for several years in order to promote the supposedly particularly medicinal "monastery balm" and the high-percentage Klosterfrau melissa spirit produced from it . The monastery balm is actually an ordinary lemon balm that is available as a herb in every supermarket .


  • Basilius Besler : The garden of Eichstätt . Reprint from the hand-colored first edition (1613) with a foreword by W. Dressendörfer and KW Littger. Taschen, Cologne 2000, ISBN 3-8228-6576-1 .
  • Franz-Christian Czygan : medicinal plant gardens - objects of art. In: Journal of Phytotherapy. Volume 11, 1990, pp. 185-194.
  • Friedrich Gottlieb Dietrich : The complete pharmacist garden . New increased edition. Ebner , Ulm 1856.
  • Hermann Jäger : The pharmacist's garden: Instructions for the culture and treatment of the medicinal plants to be grown in Germany. For pharmacists and gardeners, land and garden owners . Verlag von Otto Spamer , 1859. Digitized
  • Werner Gaude: The old pharmacy: a thousand years of cultural history. Publishing house Koehler & Amelang, Leipzig 1985.
  • Johannes Gottfried Mayer : Monastery medicine: the herb gardens in the former monastery complexes of Lorsch and Seligenstadt. Verlag Schnell and Steiner 2002, ISBN 978-3-7954-1429-0 .

Web links

Commons : Apothecary Gardens  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. City of Waiblingen: Idyllic location - the Apothekergarten ( Memento from December 13, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on December 9, 2013
  2. ^ City of Gütersloh: Apothekergarten in Gütersloh , accessed on December 9, 2013
  3. State Medical Association Thuringia: Apothekergarten am Thüringer Apothekerhaus , accessed on December 9, 2013
  4. From pharmacists, pills and herbs : with pictures and texts, 2001, p. 64 online
  5. ^ Carmélia Opsomer-Halleux: The medieval garden and its role in medicine. In: Elisabeth B. MacDougall (Ed.) Medieval gardens. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC, 1986 (= Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the history of landscape architecture. , Volume 9).
  6. Jerry Stannard: Alimentary and medicinal uses of plants. In: Elisabeth B. Mac Dougall (Ed.): Medieval gardens. Dumbartin Oaks, Washington DC 1986 (= Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the history of landscape architecture. Volume 9), p. 74.
  7. Christina Becela-Deller: Ruta graveolens L. A medicinal plant in terms of art and cultural history. (Mathematical-scientific dissertation Würzburg 1994) Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1998 (= Würzburg medical-historical research. Volume 65), ISBN 3-8260-1667-X , p. 100 f.
  8. Apotheken-Garten in: Deutsche Gärtnerbörse: Ed. A., Volume 68, pp. 756 ff. Online
  9. Werner Gaude: The old pharmacy: a thousand years of cultural history. Verlag Koehler & Amelang, Leipzig 1985. P. 56 f.
  10. Gaude, p. 56
  11. a b c Gaude, p. 58
  12. ^ Johannes Mayer: Monastery medicine. P. 43 ff.
  13. Johannes Gottfried Mayer: Monastery gardens - the pharmacy of God In: Rudolf Walter (Ed.): Health from monasteries. Herder Verlag, Freiburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-451-00546-6 , p. 8 ff.
  14. Malin Schneider: Guided Tours - Heilsames aus dem Apothekergarten , WAZ , June 17, 2013
  15. ^ Landesapothekerverband Niedersachsen e. V .: Medicinal plants and pharmacist gardens in Lower Saxony ( Memento from December 13, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on December 11, 2013
  16. Nicola Menke: The pharmacy garden in the spa park is being replanted , online in nordbayern.de from April 19, 2011, accessed on December 11, 2013
  17. Apothecary garden near Planten un Blomen
  18. ^ Albert M. Kraushaar: Bad Liebenzell - Apothekergarten is currently in full splendor , in Black Forest Bote from June 4, 2013, accessed on December 11, 2013
  19. Guided tour through the Apothekergarten , lwl.org
  20. Wendlingen: In Gottes Apothekergarten , July 20, 2013
  21. ^ Television: Die Affaire Hademar Bankhofer (updated: WDR fires Bankhofer) ( Memento from December 14, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), Handelsblatt , July 23, 2013
  22. Economy: Klostermelisse - the Piedmont cherry from the Klosterfrau family. ( Memento of December 14, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Handelsblatt, July 25, 2008
  23. ^ Bernhard Fabian: Handbook of German historical book collections in Europe: Czech Republic. Böhmen , Olms-Weidmann, Hildesheim 1998, 328 pages
  24. Scherer, Vierchow, Eisenmann, Friedreich, Falck, Fick, Löschner and Wiggers: Canstatt's Annual Report on Advances in Pharmacy and Related Sciences, Volume 6 , Verlag der Stahel'schen Buchhandlung, Würzburg 1857.