Butter-Rübling ( Rhodocollybia butyracea )
|( Bull .: Fr. ) Lennox|
The butter or chestnut red turnip ( Rhodocollybia butyracea syn. Collybia butyracea ) and its gray-capped form Horny gray turnout ( Rhodocollybia butyracea f. Asema ) are edible mushrooms from the Omphalotaceae family .
The fruit body is divided into a hat and a stem and has lamellae on the underside of the hat. Velum universale and Velum partiale are completely absent. The tough, fibrous stalk is 4–9 cm long, smooth to finely frosted at the tip of the stalk, clearly longitudinally grooved towards the bottom and expanded at the base, where it is often covered by loose, white mycelial felt. It is pink-brown to yellow-brown when young, darkens from the base as it ages, but retains the white-felted base. The hat , between 3–6 cm wide and 1–1.5 cm thick, is flat, pillow-shaped to flattened and often bluntly hunched. The edges of the hat often bulge upwards with age. It is red-brown or horn-gray to olive-gray and slightly darker in color in the middle. When wet, the surface has a greasy shine (name!) And is somewhat hygrophan, and areas of the hat that are soaked through appear darker, while short-lived zones of different colors form when they dry out. The whitish or watery pale lamellae have finely notched edges. They are free to tacked, and sometimes, when tacked, with a small, torn tooth. The mushroom smells inconspicuous or slightly fruity. The spore powder is pale ocher with a light pink tinge.
The spores are lanceolate, 6.5–8.5 (9.0) × 3.0–4.0 (4.5) µm in size, initially thin-walled and not dextrinoid, become when lying down (post-ripening process, only in a moist environment) but thick-walled and clearly dextrinoid. The cheilocystidia ( cystidia of the lamellar edge) are scattered to often, mixed with basidia, therefore quite inconspicuous, 15–35 × 3.0–10 µm in size, club-shaped or subcylindrical, sometimes irregular to coralloid in shape. Pleurocystids (cystids on the lamellar surfaces) and caulocystids (cystids on the stem surface) are absent. The lamellar trama is sub-regular (consists largely of parallel hyphae, but the closer you get to the lamellar cutting edge, more hyphae run across it). Buckles often appear in the top layers (hat top layer, stem top layer) and in the hymenium, but are rare in the trama.
The species can be confused with the winter schüppling ( Meottomyces dissimulans ) with a ringed stalk and an often slimy hat and the poisonous depressed red rot ( Entoloma rhodopolium ), which has no such contrast between white lamellae and greasy brown hat.
Similar species within the genus are the Filamentous Rübling ( Rhodocollybia filamentosa ), whose color and habitus are very similar, but which has an ingrown, fibrous hat and serrated lamellar edges, and the Cuttleaved Rübling ( R. proxila ) with lively reddish colors, also notched lamellar edges and without the greasy, shiny hat.
The butterwort is found in coniferous and deciduous forests on nutrient-poor soils from June to November. It is widespread and common in boreal and temperate Europe.
The Butter Rübling is an ectomycorrhizal fungus . Due to a C and N isotope ratio, which is typical for saprobic species, and because of its rapid mycelial growth on agar plates, it is discussed whether it cannot at least optionally live saprobically despite the evidence of an ectomycorrhiza. The same applies to the spotted ruff ( Rhodocollybia maculata ), in which an ectomycorrhiza with Pinus pinaster has developed in culture .
The species was first in 1792 by Jean Baptiste Francois Bulliard as Agaricus butyraceus first described and the kind of the mushrooms ( Agaricus assigned). In 1871, Ferdinand Kummer realized that it was not a mushroom and assigned the mushroom to the genus of the turnip species ( Collybia ). It was not until 1979 that Joanne Williams Lennox placed the species in the genus of the rose sprouts ( Rhodocollybia ) and got its current name Rhodocollybia butyracea .
In addition to the nominate form R. butyracea f. butyracea with a brownish hat, the species still includes a gray-capped form, which is referred to as the horn-gray turnip ( R. butyracea f. asema or as a variety var. asema ). It used to be viewed as a separate species and had the scientific name Collybia asema (Fr.) Gillet .
Usually only the hats are used because the stems are too tough. The hat meat has a floury taste and is therefore only little appreciated by many collectors. However, it does make its contribution to mixed mushroom dishes.
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