Illustration of the long-capped jute ( Corchorus olitorius )
Appearance and leaves
Corchorus TYPES usually grow as annuals or perennial herbaceous plants , semi-shrubs or more rarely shrubs . The above-ground parts of the plant often have simple, star-shaped hairs ( trichomes ). The alternate leaves are stalked. The simple, paper-like leaf blades are lanceolate and 5 to 15 cm long. The leaf margins are notched, serrated to serrated. The stipules are thread-like.
Inflorescences and flowers
The flowers are solitary or in pairs to five, rarely up to eight, in zymous, dold-like or racemose inflorescences , which are in the leaf axils or on the branches between the leaf axils. There is a short inflorescence stem. There is a very short to at most short flower stalk. Some species have an outer calyx. The small, hermaphrodite flowers are usually four to five-fold, are radial symmetry to partially zygomorphic . There are rarely four or mostly five free sepals . The rarely four or mostly five free petals are yellow. The eight to twenty (rarely up to 100) free, fertile stamens are sometimes arranged asymmetrically. Two to five carpels are fused to form an upper, two to five- chamber ovary. Each ovary chamber contains many ovules. The short style ends in a shield- or disk-shaped, wavy, short lobed, notched, toothed or papillary scar.
Fruits and seeds
The linear-elongated cylindrical or almost spherical, sometimes angular or prickly capsule fruits open with two to five flaps and contain many hanging or horizontal seeds; they can be transversely septate between the seeds. The seeds contain endosperm and a curved embryo with two thin, heart-shaped cotyledons ( cotyledons ).
The genus Corchorus was set up in 1753 by Carl von Linné in Species Plantarum , 1, pp. 529-530. The lectotype was 1929 by NL Britton & Millspaugh in Bahama Fl. , P. 262 Corchorus olitorius L. set. Synonyms for Corchorus L. are: Nettoa Baill. , Oceanopapaver Guillaumin , Rhizanota Lour. ex Gomes . The genus Corchorus L. was previously placed in the earlier family Tiliaceae; today it belongs to the subfamily of the Grewioideae within the Malvaceae family .
There are 40 to 100 Corchorus species (selection):
- Corchorus aestuans L .: It occurs in Mexico, in Central America, on islands in the Caribbean and in northern South America and is a neophyte in other tropical countries.
- Corchorus asplenifolius Burch. : It was described from southern Africa.
- Round capsular jute ( Corchorus capsularis L. ): the exact homeland is unknown; it is often a neophyte in the tropics.
- Corchorus carnarvonensis Halford : It was described from Western Australia.
- Corchorus confusus Wild : It was described from Africa.
- Corchorus cunninghamii F. Muell. : It was described from Australia.
- Corchorus depressus (L.) Stocks
- Corchorus fascicularis Lam.
- Corchorus hirtus L. (Syn .: Corchorus pilolobus Link ; non Corchorus hirtus Thunb. , This is a synonym of Zelkova serrata (Thunb.) Makino ): Corchorus hirtus occurs in the southern United States, in Mexico, in Central America, on islands in the Caribbean and South America.
- Corchorus junodi N.E. Br .: It was described from southern Africa.
- Corchorus kirkii N.E. Br .: It was described from tropical Africa.
- Corchorus longipedunculatus mast. : It was described from tropical Africa.
- Corchorus neocaledonicus Schltr. : It is the only species of the genus in New Caledonia and was also placedin its own genus Oceanopapaver Guillaumin as Oceanopapaver neocaledonicum Guillaumin . This shrub thrives on soils formedby serpentine .
- Long-capped jute ( Corchorus olitorius L. ): The home is at least Pakistan and India.
- Corchorus orinocensis Kunth : It occurs in Mexico, South America and maybe also in Central America.
- Corchorus pseudocapsularis Schweinf. : It was described from tropical Africa.
- Corchorus pseudo-olitorius Islam & Zaid : It was described from India.
- Corchorus schimperi Cufod.
- Corchorus sidoides F. Muell. : It was described from Australia.
- Corchorus siliquosus L .: It occurs from Florida and Mexico to Panama and the islands in the Caribbean and is a neophyte in Peru and Ecuador.
- Corchorus tridens L .: It occurs in Africa, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal and Australia and isa neophytein Barbados .
- Corchorus trilocularis L .: It occurs in Africa on the Arabian Peninsula, in West Asia, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka and isa neophytein Yunnan , Java, Australia and New Caledonia .
- Corchorus velutinus Wild : It was described from Africa.
- Corchorus walcottii F. Muell. : It occurs in Australia.
In particular, the two types of jute with round capsules ( Corchorus capsularis ) and jute with long capsules ( Corchorus olitorius ) are of economic importance as suppliers of jute fibers . The main growing area is the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Delta in Bangladesh .
For example, some species are used as leaf vegetables in West Africa . The leaves of long- capsular jute ( Corchorus olitorius ) and round-capsular jute ( Corchorus capsularis ) are eaten raw or cooked. Young leaves are eaten as a salad, but older leaves are cooked and eaten as a vegetable. They contain a relatively large number of proteins . Dried leaves can be used to thicken soups or to make tea. Unripe fruits are used as a condiment for salads and vegetables. In Arabic cuisine, the leaves are processed into a spinach-like dish, the Molukhieh.
The medicinal effects of long-capped jute ( Corchorus olitorius ) and round-capped jute ( Corchorus capsularis ) were investigated.
Matches are made from the woody plant parts of the long- capsular jute ( Corchorus olitorius ) and the round-capsular jute ( Corchorus capsularis ).
Paper is made from round jute ( Corchorus capsularis ).
- Ya Tang, Michael G. Gilbert, Laurence J. Dorr: Tiliaceae. : Corchorus , p. 312 - online with the same text as the printed work , In: Wu Zheng-yi, Peter H. Raven, Deyuan Hong (ed.): Flora of China. Volume 12: Hippocastanaceae through Theaceae , Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis, 2007. ISBN 978-1-930723-64-1 (sections description, distribution and classification)
- Abdul Ghafoor: Tiliaceae. : Corchorus at Tropicos.org. In: Flora of Pakistan . Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis (Sections Description, Distribution, and Systematics)
- HR Coleman, 2008: Corchorus in the Western Australian flora . (Section description)
- Stewart Robert Hinsley, 2003: Genus information on the Malvaceae website. (Section systematics)
- Corchorus at Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis
- Corchorus in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- Barbara A. Whitlock, Kenneth G. Karol and William S. Alverson: Chloroplast DNA Sequences Confirm the Placement of the Enigmatic Oceanopapaver within Corchorus (Grewioideae: Malvaceae sl, Formerly Tiliaceae) . In: International Journal of Plant Sciences , Volume 164, No. 1, 2003, pp. 35-41.
- Corchorus capsularis at Plants For A Future
- Corchorus olitorius at Plants For A Future