Chinese rose hibiscus ( Hibiscus rosa-sinensis )
The mallow family (Malvaceae) are a family in the order of the mallow-like (Malvales) within the flowering plants . The family is now divided into nine subfamilies with around 243 genera and contains around 4,225 to 4,300 species. The Malvaceae have a worldwide distribution. The best- known crops are marshmallow , cocoa tree and cotton . This family includes some types that are used medicinally or for teas . Many species and especially their varieties are ornamental plants for parks, gardens and spaces.
Appearance and leaves
There are herbaceous plants : annual to perennial and woody plants: shrubs and trees , very rarely lianas . In the woody species, the bark is fibrous. The mallow family often have mucous cells. There is usually hair on many parts of the plant, it is usually star hair. Thorns or thorns are seldom present. There may be extra-floral nectaries .
The mostly alternate leaves are petiolate. The finger-veined leaf blade is palmate, lobed to divided or undivided. The leaf margin is smooth, notched, serrated or serrated; if it is not smooth, one leaf vein ends per tooth. There are stipules present, very rarely they are reduced.
Inflorescences and flowers
Species whose flowers are monoecious ( monoecious ) or dioecious ( dioecious ) are seperate. The flowers are arranged in lateral, differently structured, often zymous inflorescences or the inflorescences are reduced to one flower. Cauliflora occurs in some tropical species (well-known example of the cocoa tree ( Theobroma cacao )). Sometimes a few bracts stand together or there is a sub-calyx of mostly three, rarely more bracts, in many genera.
The mostly stalked flowers are typically radially symmetrical , rarely somewhat zygomorphic ( e.g. Helicteres ) or asymmetrical ( e.g. Mansonia ). The five-fold flowers are rarely unisexual, mostly hermaphroditic with a double perianth . The usually five sepals are often fused at their base and only touch (valvat) in the rest of the area. The mostly five largely free petals overlap twisted (contort). In some species the petals are reduced or absent. In some species, the base of the stamens is fused with the petals.
In the Malvaceae family, originally only the inner circle with five stamens is present. In many taxa , a special feature of the flowers is a so-called secondary multiplicity of stamens (up to over 1000), with the members of the inner circle increased centripetally, resulting in five groups of stamens. Often staminodes are present. The stamens are fused at least at their base. In the subfamilies Bombacoideae and Malvoideae , the stamens of the many stamens have grown together to form a tube surrounding the pistil , the so-called Columna . Numerous representatives of the subfamilies Grewioideae , Helicteroideae and Sterculioideae have an androgynophore that lifts the stamens and gynoeceum out of the flower. The pollen are different in the subfamilies. Two to many upper constant carpels are free or at a ovary grown. The style ends in a cephalic or often five-lobed scar. In the flowers there are nectaries , which consist of gathered glandular hairs and are usually located on the sepals.
Fruits and seeds
The Malvaceae has a wide range of fruit types. Usually capsule fruits or split fruits are formed, more rarely berries , stone fruits or nuts . Many fruits contain hair. In some species, the fruits have hairs or spines on the surface.
The seeds can have hair (known from cotton), wings or an aril (for example Durio ).
With the taxa with capsule fruits the seeds are the distribution units ( diaspores ); otherwise the fruits are mostly the diaspores. They are mainly spread by wind (known from Tilia , Anemochorie ) or animals, rarely by water; of myrmecochory is rarely reported.
Ingredients and chromosomes
The chromosome numbers are different in the subfamilies: Bombacoideae n = 36 (−46), Brownlowioideae n = 10, Byttnerioideae n = (5-7) 10 (−13), Dombeyoideae n = 19, 20, 30 etc., Grewioideae n = 7-9 (10), Helicteroideae n = 9, 14, 20, 25 etc., Malvoideae n = 5-20 (-more), Sterculioideae n = (15, 16, 18) 20 (21 etc.), Tilioideae n = 41.
Molecular genetic studies in particular led to major changes in the systematics of the Malvales order . Some taxa were newly incorporated into the Malvaceae family, including the former families of the linden family , the woolly tree family and the sterculia family . These newly arranged former families are now only subfamilies. Most of the taxa that formed the previous family of Mallowaceae are now found in the subfamily Malvoideae; hence the term "mallow family in the narrower sense". The family is now divided into nine subfamilies.
Synonyms for Malvaceae Juss. are: Bombacaceae Kunth nom. cons., Brownlowiaceae Cheek , Byttneriaceae R.Br. nom. cons., Dombeyaceae Kunth , Durionaceae Cheek , Fremontiaceae J.Agardh nom. illeg., Helicteraceae J.Agardh , Hermanniaceae Marquis , Hibiscaceae J.Agardh , Lasiopetalaceae Rchb. , Melochiaceae J.Agardh , Pentapetaceae Bercht. & J.Presl , Philippodendraceae A.Juss. , Plagianthaceae J.Agardh , Sparmanniaceae J.Agardh , Sterculiaceae Vent. nom. cons., Theobromataceae J. Agardh , Tiliaceae Juss. nom. cons., Triplochitonaceae K.Schum. nom. nud.
Subfamilies and some important genera
The Malvaceae family is now divided into nine subfamilies with about 243 genera and contains about 4225 to 4300 species. (If there is an article on the subfamily, then this information about tribe and genera can be found there):
- Subfamily wool tree plants (Bombacoideae Burnett ): It contains 12 to 16 genera with around 120 species in the tropics, especially in Africa and the Neotropics .
- Subfamily Brownlowioideae : Contains about eight genera and 68 species in the tropics, mainly in the Old World :
- Berrya Roxb. (Including Espera Willd. ): The approximately six species distributed in the Indomalayic Unterreich of the Paleotropic .
- Brownlowia Roxb. : The approximately 25 species are distributed from Southeast Asia to the Solomon Islands .
- Christiana DC. : The fiveor sospecies occur in tropical South America , Africa or Tahiti .
- Diplodiscus Turcz. : The approximately twelve species occur in Sri Lanka or in western Malesia .
- Indicator Halford : It contains only one species:
- Jarandersonia Kosterm. : The probably only one species occurs only on Borneo .
- Pentace Hassk. : The approximately 25 species are distributed from Myanmar to western Malesia.
- Pityranthe Thwaites : The only two species occur only in Sri Lanka and Taiwan.
- Subfamily Byttnerioideae Burnett : It contains about 26 genera with about 650 species in the tropics worldwide, with a focus on South America:
- Tribus Byttnerieae DC. :
Abroma Jacq. : It probably contains only one species:
- Abroma augusta (L.) L. f. : It is common from tropical Asia to Australia.
- Ayenia L .: The approximately 70 species are distributed from southern North America to Argentina.
- Byttneria Loefl. : The approximately 135 species are common in the tropics.
Kleinhovia L .: It contains only one species:
- Kleinhovia hospita L .: It is distributed from tropical Asia to Australia.
- Leptonychia Turcz. : Depending on the opinion with 6 to 45 species in the tropics.
- Megatritheca Cristóbal : The only two species are common in tropical Africa.
Rayleya Cristóbal : It contains only one species:
- Rayleya bahiensis Cristóbal : It occurs in Brazil.
- Scaphopetalum mast. : The 3 to 15 species are common in tropical Africa.
- Abroma Jacq. : It probably contains only one species:
- Tribus Hermannieae DC. :
Dicarpidium F. Muell. : It contains only one type:
- Dicarpidium monoicum F. Muell. : It occurs in Australia.
Gilesia F. Muell. : It contains only one type:
- Gilesia biniflora F. Muell. : It occurs in central Australia.
- Hermannia L .: The 100 to 120 species are common in tropical and especially in southern Africa .
- Melochia L .: The 55 to 60 species are widespread in the tropics, especially in the Neotropics.
- Waltheria L .: The 16 to 67 species are mainly found in the Neotropic, but one species each also occurs in Africa, Madagascar, the Malay Peninsula, China and Taiwan.
- Dicarpidium F. Muell. : It contains only one type:
- Tribus Lasiopetaleae DC. :
- Commersonia J.R. Forst. & G.Forst. : The approximately 14 species are distributed from Southeast Asia to Australia and New Caledonia .
- Guichenotia J.Gay : The approximately 14 species occur in Australia.
- Hannafordia F. Muell. : The three or so species occur in Australia.
- Keraudrenia J.Gay : The approximately 13 species occur in Australia.
- Lasiopetalum Sm .: The approximately 30 to 35 species occur in Australia.
- Lysiosepalum F. Muell. : There are about two species in southwestern Australia.
- Rulingia R.Br. : The approximately 27 species are distributed from Southeast Asia to Australia and are also found in Madagascar.
Seringia J.Gay : It contains only one species:
- Seringia arborescens (Aiton) Druce : It occurs in Australia and New Guinea.
- Thomasia J.Gay : The 32 or so species occur in Australia.
- Tribe Theobromateae A. Stahl :
- Glossostemon Desf. : It contains only one type:
Guazuma Mill .: The three to four kinds are common in the Neotropic.
- Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. : Northeast Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Brazil to Central America and the Caribbean.
- Herrania Goudot : around 15 species are common in tropical South America.
Cocoa trees ( Theobroma L. ): The 17 to 20 species are common in the Neotropic; most important type of genus is:
- Cocoa tree ( Theobroma cacao L. )
- Tribus Byttnerieae DC. :
- Subfamily Dombeyoideae Beilschm. : It contains about 21 genera with about 381 species that are common in the tropical areas of the Old World, especially Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands , but there are no species in the New World and Australia:
- Astiria Lindl. : It contains only one type:
- Burretiodendron Rehder : The seven or so species are common in Southeast Asia.
Cheirolaena Benth. : It contains only one type:
- Cheirolaena linearis Benth. : It only occurs in Mauritius.
- Corchoropsis Siebold & Zucc. : The one to three types are common in East Asia and Japan.
- Dombeya Cav. : The approximately 225 species are distributed from Africa to the Mascarenes .
- Eriolaena DC. : The 8 to 17 species are common in Indomalesia, China and Southeast Asia.
- Harmsia K. Schum. : The one to three types are common in Africa.
Helmiopsiella Arènes : it contains only one species:
- Helmiopsiella leandrii (top right) LCBarnett : It only occurs in Madagascar.
- Helmiopsis H.Perrier : The nine or so species only occur in Madagascar.
- Melhania Forssk. : The approximately 60 species are common in the tropics.
Nesogordonia Baill. : The approximately 17 species are common in Africa and Madagascar, including:
- Nesogordonia tricarpellata Skema & Dorr
- Paradombeya Stapf : The one to five species are common in Asia.
Paramelhania Arènes : it contains only one species:
- Paramelhania decaryana Arènes : It only occurs in Madagascar.
Pentapetes L .: It probably contains only one species:
- Pentapetes phoenicea L .: It is widespread in Indomalesia.
- Pterospermum Schreb. : The ten or so species are common in Asia.
- Ruizia Cav. : The only three species are endemic to Réunion .
- Schoutenia Korth. : The nine or so species are distributed from Southeast Asia to Australia.
Sicrea (Pierre) Hallier f. : It contains only one type:
- Sicrea godefroyana Hallier f. : It is common in Southeast Asia.
- Trochetia DC. : The six or so species occur only on Mauritius and Réunion.
Trochetiopsis Marais : The only three species are endemic to St. Helena:
- Trochetiopsis also Cronk
- Trochetiopsis erythroxylon (G.Forst.) Marais : It is extinct in natural locations.
- Trochetiopsis melanoxylon (R.Br.) Marais : It was rediscovered in 1970.
- Subfamily Grewioideae Dippel : It contains about 25 genera with about 770 species, which are mainly distributed worldwide in the tropics.
- Subfamily Helicteroideae : It contains eight to twelve genera with around 95 species that are distributed in the tropics, mainly Asia:
- Tribe Durioneae Becc. : It contains about six genera:
- Boschia Korth. : The six or so species are common in Myanmar and Malesia (especially Borneo).
- Coelostegia Benth. : The six or so species are common in western Malesia.
- Cullenia Wight : The three or so species are common in India and Sri Lanka.
Durian trees ( Durio Adans. ): The approximately 27 species are common in western Malesia; with the most important type:
- Durian ( Durio zibethinus L. )
Kostermansia Soegeng : It contains only one species:
- Kostermansia malayana Soegeng : It occurs on the Malay Peninsula.
Neesia flower : The eight or so species are common in western Malesia.
- Neesia altissima (flower) flower : From Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Malaysia and Thailand.
- Tribus Helictereae Schott & Endl. :
- Helicteres L .: The 40 to 60 species are common in the tropics of Asia and in the Neotropic.
- Mansonia J.R. Drumm. ex Prain : The one to five species are common in Africa and Asia.
- Neoregnellia Urb. : It contains only one type:
- Reevesia Lindl. : The approximately 15 species are common in East Asia.
- Triplochiton K. Schum. : The one to three species are common in tropical Africa.
- Ungeria Schott & Endl. : The only one or two species occur only on the Norfolk Islands .
- Tribe Durioneae Becc. : It contains about six genera:
- Subfamily Malvoideae Burnett (Mallow family in the narrower sense): It contains about 78 genera with about 1670 species in the temperate to tropical regions of the world.
- Subfamily sterculioideae ( Sterculioideae Burnett ): It contains about twelve genera and about 430 species with pantropischer distribution.
- Subfamily Lindengewächse (Tilioideae Arn. ): It contains three genera with about 50 species. The species of this subfamily are native to the temperate climate of the northern hemisphere and Central America.
Cladogram according to AP website:
Some mallow plants are important forage crops for the mallow pigheaded butterfly ( Carcharodus alceae ). The caterpillars of this butterfly species mainly feed on common mallow ( Malva neglecta ) and musk mallow ( Malva moschata ).
Many species and especially their varieties are ornamental plants for parks, gardens and spaces. The most commonly cultivated species is the Chinese rose hibiscus ( Hibiscus rosa-sinensis ) with hundreds of varieties, which is important in parks and gardens in frost-free areas, but is also used as a houseplant. Cup mallow , hollyhock and many more can be found in the temperate latitudes in the gardens. Some tree species are planted in parks and avenues in the tropics.
There are a multitude of species that are widely used by humans. The cocoa tree is known as a useful plant . Okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus ) is a vegetable. The fruits and leaves of the African baobab tree are edible. The durian fruit is known.
This family includes several types that are used for teas . The medicinal effect of many species is mainly based on the mucus they contain. Also known colas ( Coke ). The wild mallow , also called "large cheese poplar", is one of the oldest known vegetable and medicinal plants .
Subfamily Brownlowioideae: fruits and seeds of Berrya cordifolia
Subfamily Byttnerioideae: fruits and seeds of Theobroma cacao
Subfamily Grewioideae: fruits of Triumfetta lepidota
- DA Baum, SD Smith, A. Yen, WS Alverson, R. Nyffeler, BA Whitlock & RL Oldham: Phylogenetic relationships of Malvatheca (Bombacoideae and Malvoideae; Malvaceae sensu lato) as inferred from plastid DNA sequences. In: American Journal of Botany. , Volume 91, 2004, pp. 1863-1871.
- C. Bayer, Klaus Kubitzki: Malvaceae . In: Klaus Kubitzki (Ed.): The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants . Malvales, Capparales and non-betalain Caryophyllales. tape 5 . Springer Science & Business Media, 2003, p. 225-311 ( Malvaceae in Google Book Search).
- William S. Alverson, Barbara A. Whitlock, Reto Nyffeler, Clemens Bayer & David A. Baum: Phylogeny of the core Malvales: evidence from ndhF sequence data. In: American Journal of Botany. Volume 86, 1999, pp. 1474-1486 ( amjbot.org ).
- C. Bayer, JR Hoppe, K. Kubitzki, MF Fay, AY De Bruijn, V. Savolainen, CM Morton, K. Kubitzki, WS Alverson & MW Chase: Support for an expanded family concept of Malvaceae within a recircumscribed order Malvales: a combined analysis of plastid atpB and rbcL DNA sequences. In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Volume 129, 1999, pp. 267-303.
- Rolf Giebelmann: Cultural history on mallow plants. In: Toxichem + Krimtech. 73, 2, 2006, pp. 66–69: gtfch.org (PDF; 2.68 MB, full text).
- Description of the Malvaceae family on the AP website . (Section systematics)
- Bente B. Klitgård, Sara L. Edwards, Nicola Biggs, Sue Frisby: Neotropical Malvaceae (Malvoideae). on kew.org 2011.
- Bente B. Klitgård: Neotropical Malvaceae (Byttnerioideae). on kew.org 2013.
- Bente B. Klitgård: Neotropical Malvaceae (Bombacoideae). on kew.org 2013.
- C. Bayer, Klaus Kubitzki: Malvaceae . In: Klaus Kubitzki (Ed.): The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants . Malvales, Capparales and non-betalain Caryophyllales. tape 5 . Springer Science & Business Media, 2003, p. 225–311 ( Malvaceae, from page 225 in the Google book search).
- Malvaceae in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- David John Mabberley: Mabberley's Plant-Book. A portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses. 3. Edition. Cambridge University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4 ( limited preview in Google Book Search).
- Heiko Bellmann : The new Kosmos butterfly guide. Butterflies, caterpillars and forage plants. Franckh-Kosmos, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-440-09330-1 , p. 108.