A time-invariant, i.e. H. Assuming a static electric field that assigns a potential to every point in space; one therefore speaks of a potential field . The difference between the potentials at two points is called the electrical voltage between these points (see also potential and voltage ).
A potential field can be visualized using equipotential surfaces .
Electrical potential of a point charge
- the electric charge
- the electric field constant
- the position of the point under consideration relative to the point charge.
In the Heaviside-Lorentz system of units , due to is simplified
Electric potential of a static electric field
Usually zero potential is chosen. It follows:
Especially for the empty space there is . is therefore a harmonious function .
The electrical potential is constant inside a conductor .
Electric potential of a dynamic electric field
The following applies to dynamic electric fields:
The electric field can therefore not be represented as a gradient field of the electric potential. Instead, the gradient field of the potential is:
With the usual choice of as zero potential follows:
For stationary fields we have and , so that the formulas change back to those for static fields.
- Wolfgang Demtröder: Experimentalphysik 2 Electricity and Optics . 7., corr. and exp. Edition. Springer-Verlag GmbH, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-662-55789-1 .