Analyzes , information , advice , diagnoses , reports , studies ( case studies , field studies ) or investigations also fulfill the task of expert reports . The word expertise stands for the report as such as well as for the assessment skills of the expert (someone has expertise). The noun agentis expertise, derived from expert, is associated with a person's experience and performance . The experience can above all be many years of professional experience ; the knowledge results from the intensive study of certain areas of knowledge . The long-term performance that an expert expresses when combining knowledge and experience is also decisive . The expertise deals with problems , i.e. situations in which the available knowledge is not sufficient to achieve the goal , but additional information is required. The core of the expertise is to eliminate these problems through the key competence of problem solving .
Expertise research within psychology did not emerge until 1965 by Adriaan de Groot and raised the expertise to “a magic word in cognitive psychology”. Your cognitive object “Expertise” has produced a large number of attempts at definition. For example, expertise is intersubjectively visible , plausible and credible expert knowledge or “knowledge of action generated for special cases that must meet the conditions of epistemic and social robustness”. Michael Polanyi finally understood expertise to be the highest form of integration of implicit (non-formalized) knowledge.
Criteria for expertise
According to Josef F. Krems , the expertise is characterized by the fact that a person has problem-solving skills in a subject area that enables them to achieve excellent results over the long term. He assumes that experts meet three criteria in their expertise:
- Efficiency as the ability to permanently cope with an above-average number of tasks with below-average effort ( working hours , labor costs or error rate ),
- to combine area-specific knowledge about subject areas in the expertise with work methodology and process management as well as
- to be able to apply the experience required for an expertise through deduction .
Efficiency, area-specific knowledge and experience must be combined in the expertise.
Only analyzes and reports meet scientific requirements, but expert reports do not have to take these standards into account.
areas of expertise
Expert reports are created in particular in academic (e.g. medicine , law ), professional ( financial analyst , auditor ), artistic ( art , music ), motor ( sport , accident analysis ) or playful ( chess ) areas . They contain both past facts ( empirical expertises ) and the prognosis of future developments ( prognostic expertises ). In numismatics , expertise deals with the authenticity of a rare coin , philately offers expertise on postage stamps ; both end with a valuation by establishing a collector's value .
The financial expertise deals with a detailed question from finance , such as stock analysis . Investors , speculators and arbitrageurs are interested in the future market development of a trading object . In financial analysis, the expertise uses technical analysis and fundamental analysis as well as forecasting techniques such as trend extrapolation . Financial analysis , real estate appraisal , market analysis , damage analysis , collateral appraisal or appraisal are expertise on a certain issue in finance.
Since counterfeits are repeatedly offered for sale on the art market , expert knowledge is required. So z. B. in the case of consignments to an auction house of works of art whose provenance is unclear, art experts are commissioned. If there is any doubt about the authenticity of the goods, the auction house advises the consignor to have an expertise drawn up. These can be individuals, but also smaller teams of art experts.
For example, for a work of art by Alexej von Jawlensky , which to this day is not listed in any of the oeuvre directories of his work, but is to be offered for sale, the Jawlensky archive is preparing an expertise. Contrary to professional expertise, his “Still Life with a Green Bottle” (1909) did not come from him, but from an unknown hand. The Wildenstein Institute in Paris also prepares art expertise, e.g. B. for works by Marc Chagall or Kees van Dongen . The art market - according to the Federal Court of Justice (BGH) - therefore largely depends on the information provided by its clients and on expert reports. For this, in some cases very complex material tests have to be carried out. The Rathgen Research Laboratory in Berlin, for example, played a key role in uncovering the false collection of Jäger from the forger Wolfgang Beltracchi through its archaeometric investigations and the expertises based on them . A positive expertise has a direct effect on the value of the work of art.
In the last few years, works of art by Max Ernst have almost exclusively been examined for authenticity by the Max Ernst expert Werner Spies . However, this was drawn into the forgery scandal in the course of the Beltracchi forgeries and the false collection of Jäger . Werner Spies had prepared expert reports on counterfeit works of art by Max Ernst for six-figure sums.
Apart from questions of authenticity, the question of attribution can also be the subject of an expertise: Many works of art are not signed , but can only be ascribed to a specific artist through comparisons. There is also the question of whether it is an autograph work by the artist in question or a workshop work, which is sometimes highly controversial. These questions can only partially be answered with scientific methods, more weight is the precise knowledge of the work of an artist and his time. This explains the sometimes dominant role of certain experts or teams of experts for an artist, whose statements are given great weight.
Legal opinions comment on a raised legal question in order to remove an existing legal risk. They take into account the relevant laws , the case law and prevailing opinion . They examine the legality , legal validity , validity , effectiveness and enforceability in legal relationships . The social prognosis is a criminological , psychiatric and psychological risk assessment of a criminal with regard to his ability and motivation to comply with rules and laws in the future.
- Marianne Heer, Christian Schöbi (Ed.): Court and Expertise. Stämpfli Verlag, Bern 2005, ISBN 3-7272-8885-X ( publications of the Foundation for the Further Education of Swiss Judges 6).
- Winfried Schuschke: Report, expert opinion and judgment. An introduction to legal practice. 33rd completely revised edition based on the version established by Hermann Daubenspeck in 1884, from the 12th to 18th Edition by Paul Sattelmacher , from 19. – 25. Edition by Paul Lüttig and Gerhard Beyer and from the 26. – 31. Edition edited by Wilhelm Sirp. Vahlen Verlag, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-8006-2966-6 .
- Jeanette Hron, Motivational Aspects of Professional Expertise , 2000, p. 15
- Jeanette Hron, Motivational Aspects of Professional Expertise , 2000, p. 17
- Jeanette Hron, Motivational Aspects of Professional Expertise , 2000, p. 27
- Adriaan de Groot, Het haben van een schaker ( German The thinking of a chess player ), 1965
- Hans Gruber, Expertise: Models and empirical studies , 1994, p. 7
- Klaus Altmann, Look, you expert , in: Ronald Hitzler / Anne Honer / Christoph Maeder (eds.), Expert Knowledge, 1994, p. 32 ff.
- Peter Weingart / Martin Carrier / Wolfgang Krohn , experts and Expertise , 2007, p. 293
- Michael Polanyi, The Tacit Dimension , 1966, p. 15 f.
- Josef F. Krems, Knowledge-based Judgment Formation , 1994, p. 46 ff.
- Josef F. Krems, On the Psychology of Expertise , Habilitation, 1990, p. 82 ff.
- BGHZ 63, 369
- Zeit-Online of January 13, 2012, Max Ernst GmbH & Co. KG
- Claus Grimm, The question of authorship and the practice of attribution , in: Thomas W. Gaehtgens (Hrsg.): Künstlerischer Austausch, Akten des XXVIII. International Congress for Art History Berlin, 15.-20. July 1992, Volume II, Berlin 1993, pp. 631-648