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Classification according to ICD-10
21st Other acquired deformities of the extremities
84 Changes in bone continuity
ICD-10 online (WHO version 2019)

In medicine, misalignment is a faulty position of joints , bones or teeth .

This is a deviation from the physiological norm, which, in contrast to the norm variant, is not only more significant, but usually also leads to impaired function or premature wear and tear ( osteoarthritis ).

In contrast to poor posture , a malposition cannot be corrected or reversed by the person concerned.


A classification can be made according to the underlying pathology:

  • Misalignment due to a change within a bone, e.g. B. Disturbance of the bone continuity Broken bone or pseudarthrosis or injury to the epiphyseal plate with premature (partial) closure
  • Misalignment in a joint, disruption of the interlocking of a joint, e.g. B. dislocation , or the rows of teeth during the chewing movement
  • Anatomical misalignment (atypical configuration of a joint) with changed function, e.g. B. spherical talus or neuromuscular disorder

to form

The anatomical planes

In the extremities , misalignments of the axes are described as deviations from the physiological axes in relation to the anatomical planes , whereby deviations in several planes are often combined:

  • Deviations in the frontal plane (viewed from the front):
  • Deviations in the sagittal plane (viewed from the side):
  • Deviations in the transversal plane (viewed from below):
    • Rotational malalignment with internal rotation of the distal segment as anteversion
    • Rotational error with increased external rotation of the distal segment as retrotorsion

Displacement of the lower jaw to the upper jaw are as retrognathia or prognathism designated


A misalignment can occur in numerous parts of the body:

root cause

Possible causes for a misalignment are:


  • F. Hefti: Children's orthopedics in practice . Springer 1998, ISBN 3-540-61480-X .
  • W. Schuster, D. Färber (editor): Children's radiology. Imaging diagnostics. Springer 1996, Vol. 1, ISBN 3-540-60224-0 .

Individual evidence

  1. Duden, keyword misalignment
  2. a b Entry on misalignment in Flexikon , a wiki of the DocCheck company

Web links