Floriano Peixoto

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Floriano Vieira Peixoto

Floriano Vieira Peixoto (born April 30, 1839 in Ipioca , Maceió , † June 29, 1895 in Divisa , Rio de Janeiro ) was a Brazilian politician and military .


He was trained at the imperial military school. In 1863 he took part in the war against Paraguay and was soon promoted to lieutenant colonel.

In 1884 he became President of the Province of Mato Grosso , in 1888 Field Marshal and in 1889 General Adjutant of the Army and thereupon supported the republican overthrow.

Peixoto became the republic's first war minister in April 1890 and its vice-president in February 1891.

From November 1891 to November 1894 he was the second President of Brazil .

The Brazilian city of Florianópolis was named after Peixoto in 1893 .



When his predecessor Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca vetoed a law passed by Congress, the latter declared the veto invalid, whereupon the President dissolved Congress in November 1891 without legal authority and imposed a state of siege on Rio de Janeiro . Several of the federal states rose and threatened to renounce the Union, including Rio Grande do Sul , if Fonseca did not resign from the presumed dictatorial position. The navy and part of the land army under the admirals Custodio de Mello and Wandenkolk joined this request on November 23. To avoid civil war, Fonseca transferred his powers to the Vice President, General Floriano Peixoto. During this time, when the restoration of the empire in Brazil did not seem impossible, the former emperor Dom Pedro died on December 5th in Paris.

Troubled times

Even under Peixoto, the country did not calm down. Here and there uprisings arose in the federal states, namely in 1892 and 1893 in Mato Grosso and Rio Grande do Sul. In Rio de Janeiro itself, the navy under Admiral Custodio de Mello rebelled on September 6, 1893 , when Peixoto vetoed a bill according to which a vice-president could not become president of the republic. The fleet in the bay of Rio began a bombardment on the capital and its forts on September 14th . In November de Mello managed to leave the bay on the ironclad "Aquidaban". He wanted to organize the uprising in the southern states while Saldanha da Gama was in command in the bay.

In the meantime, Peixoto had bought and fitted out ships in the United States . When they arrived in the bay of Rio on March 13, 1894, the rebels submitted, da Gama fled on a Portuguese warship . De Mello remained unsuccessful in the south and surrendered to the Argentine authorities with the rest of his men on April 16 in Buenos Aires when the "Aquidaban" was sunk by a torpedo boat near Desterro . During the uprising, on March 1, Prudente José de Morais e Barros was elected President of the Republic for the term of office beginning October 15, 1894.


Through a clever reform policy in the political (reinstatement of parliament , restoration of the constitutional guarantees and greater centralization) and economic areas (lending to the economy, protective tariffs, rent cuts), Floriano Peixoto succeeded in consolidating the republic , despite the resistance of the monarchist military .

Web links

Commons : Floriano Peixoto  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Brazil (history) . In: Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon 1894-1896, Volume 3, p. 446.
predecessor Office successor
Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca President of Brazil
Prudente José de Morais e Barros