Highlands (magazine)

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Front page from highlands.  May.  Third issue 1934/35
description German Catholic culture magazine
First edition 1903/1946
attitude 1941/1971 (1974)
founder Carl Muth
Frequency of publication per month
ISSN (print)

The Hochland was a Catholic cultural magazine founded in 1903 by Carl Muth . The group of authors was non-denominational. Hochland endeavored to resolve the contradictions between the Catholic faith and the modern worldview and to enable the church teaching to connect to the modern age . This led to temporary inclusion in the Index Librorum Prohibitorum in 1911 in the "Modernism Controversy" . From 1933 onwards, the magazine regarded it as its central task to reject and overcome National Socialist ideology. The magazine was banned in April 1941. In November 1946 it was re-established by Franz Josef Schöningh . From 1971 it was called New Highlands . In 1974 it stopped appearing.

Self-image and employees

According to the subtitle, Hochland saw itself as a “monthly magazine for all areas of knowledge, literature and art”.

The main editor-in-chief was Carl Muth from 1903 to 1932 , then Friedrich Fuchs until 1935 , Carl Muth again from 1935 to 1939 and Franz Josef Schöningh from 1939 to 1941 and from 1946 to 1960 . He was followed by Karl Schaezler .

Highland district

The "Hochlandkreis", which published regularly in the magazine, included Catholic philosophers and writers such as Franz Herwig , Theodor Haecker , Gertrud von le Fort , Reinhold Schneider , Sigrid Undset , Werner Bergengruen , Max Scheler , Romano Guardini , Peter Wust , Alois Dempf , Philipp Funk , Otto Karrer , Joseph Wittig , Joseph Hengesbach , Heinrich Lützeler , Johannes Mumbauer and Konrad Weiß . The painter and writer Richard Seewald , who converted to Catholicism, and Hugo Ball , the co-founder of Dadaism , who converted to Catholicism, are also included in this group.

Other authors

Carl Schmitt published in the Hochland until September 1929, but did not belong to the Hochlandkreis. As early as 1925, Alfred von Martin in the Hochland responded with his contribution Romantic Catholicism and Catholic Romanticism to Schmitt's preface to Political Romanticism, which was published in the same magazine in 1924 . From 1932 onwards, with a contribution from Erich Brock, the Hochland kept a clear distance from Schmitt.

Schmitt's later critics Waldemar Gurian and Alfred von Martin wrote in the highlands before and after the Nazi era. The dispute between Schmitt and his friend Erik Peterson , which led to a falling out because of Schmitt's turn to NS , was also conducted in the highlands. Peterson's contribution to Emperor Augustus in the Judgment of Ancient Christianity appeared in 1933.

François Mauriac appears as an author in 1937.

Authors from the highlands who were persecuted, banned or emigrated under National Socialism

The art historian Otto von Simson , who emigrated to the USA in 1939 because of his Jewish descent , was editor of the Hochland from 1937 to 1938 , where he published until 1938. In 1949 and 1956 further contributions by him appeared in the highlands.

The economist Paul Mombert , who lost his chair in 1933 as a result of the law to restore the civil service and died in 1938 as a result of the abuse on the Night of the Reichspogroms , published in the magazine until 1937.

The peace activist, pacifist and women's rights activist Klara Marie Faßbinder published in the magazine before and after the annexation of the Saarland.

In August 1939 Ludwig Bergsträsser wrote a review entitled France as it really is .

In February 1938 the Hochland published a review of the book Essence and Change of Humanism by Horst Rüdiger by Herbert Rüssel, who at the time was already in custody for the second time and was persecuted for both his political convictions and the accusation of homosexuality. The review, which appeared in 1938, was his last publication in his lifetime. In 1940 he was killed in Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

The Jewish publicists and employees of the Weltbühne Elias Hurwicz and Rudolf Friedmann published before and after the seizure of power in the highlands.

Friedmann went to France as early as 1929, but could not leave the country after the German invasion. In 1935 his contribution “France and the Pan-Arab Movement” appeared in the highlands. Rudolf Friedmann died on February 28, 1945 in the Buchenwald concentration camp.

The author, communist and Marxist literary scholar Ewald Erb , who later received academic honors in the GDR, wrote in the highlands in the prewar period. He had been chairman of the socialist student body at the universities of Bonn and Cologne. This resulted in his relegation from university in 1933. In the February 1937 issue, Erb wrote the following allusion to the Rosenberg myth of the time in a review of Ilse Schneider-Lengyel's publication “Masks of the Earth” : “At the cradle of the mask there are terrible experiences and ideas of mankind (...) When mankind began to shape and carve this she has gradually freed herself. When she created the product and invented the theater, she mastered her own myth instead of being dominated by it. ”Another example of highland mimicry.

Authors after 1945

Well-known authors of the post-war period were Ernst-Wolfgang Böckenförde , Robert Spaemann , Hans Blumenberg and Wolfgang Grözinger .

After returning from exile, Hilde Domin published her first poem in German in the highlands and published several times in the magazine in the following years.


The Highlands has, writes Ulrich Bröckling , (in the Catholic milieu in Germany) since its establishment was the most effective among all opening attempts (to the intellectual, artistic and economic developments in the non-Catholic area) yielded. The magazine is considered an important publication organ of the German Renouveau catholique . On the one hand, it wanted to be a reflection of the intellectual currents in Roman Catholicism in German-speaking countries and, last but not least, to make these opinions heard, on the other hand, it also saw itself as an inner-Catholic body that critically dealt with the positions of Catholic doctrine, without the foundation of Catholicism wanting to leave. In the spectrum of this environment, namely the Catholic milieu , she represented the reformist wing until she was banned in 1941, even if she did not close herself to conservative voices. In his review of the book, Ludwig von Ficker: Briefwechsel 1909–1914, Rolf Schneider even referred to it as a left-wing Catholic magazine.

In the Weimar Republic, the great majority of its authors, who later became known as sociologists or publicists, supported the republic. There is hardly anyone who was a supporter of National Socialism. Carl Schmitt, who was referred to by the long-time Hochland author Waldemar Gurian as the "Crown Lawyer of the NS", has not been published in the Hochland since 1930, around the time his turn to the authoritarian state became apparent. Gurian published in the highlands before and after 1945. In the theological discussion she stood for denominational understanding and building bridges to Protestantism. Thomas Pittrof wrote in 2015: "It is a thorn in the side of many in the official church that Karl Muth not only allows Catholic, but also Protestant voices to have their say in this revue."

Hochland was an important publication organ of Theodor Haecker . In 1927 Haecker began a review of the book Die Juden by Hilaire Belloc , which he himself had translated, stating: “The immediate cause of Hilaire Belloc's 'Die Juden' is the fear of new persecution of the Jews or at least new feelings of hatred and hostility” and concluded with the sentence: “ He (the translator) translated the work for the German Vok and the Jews in Germany with no other intention and sentiment than this: Peace be Israel! ”Also through the participation of Jewish and half-Jewish authors before and after the war is the negative The magazine's stance on anti-Semitism can be proven. Even after 1933, Jewish authors in the highlands were able to publish under pseudonyms until shortly before the outbreak of war.

After 1933, the magazine Hochland combined time diagnosis and time criticism and critically examined the consequences of National Socialist rule. In March 1933, at a time when Hitler was already Chancellor, an article by Elias Hurwicz appeared in the highlands under the pseudonym "Ferdinand Muralt". The Jewish author deals critically with various aspects of National Socialism, at the end he comes to the formation of the so-called Harzburg Front and its consequences:

“[…] The left, but also the Christian trade unions, expect the same results from it with regard to the fate of the working masses as they did under fascism. Their rallies (meaning the Harzburg Front) leave no doubt about the radicalization and revolution that is already beginning in their camp. However, this is the only consequence of the current constellation that is already visible today. But this single episode weighs heavily enough and is unpredictable in its own episodes ... "

- F. Muralt / Elias Hurwicz

In June 1933 the article “Political Catholicism and Political Culture in Germany” was published in the highlands. In addition to the allusion to Carl Schmitt, it can certainly be understood as a criticism of the Center's approval of the Enabling Act passed at the end of March . This article is also from Elias Hurwicz, whose books were burned in March 1933. Given the approval of the Enabling Act and the Declaration of the Fulda Bishops Conference Hurwicz dealt with the services of the Center for Democracy in the Weimar Republic and quoted in connection with the internal political conflicts in the period immediately after the First World War, in particular the murder of Matthias Erzberger , from the Spectator letters from Ernst Troeltsch, as he says:

"[...] to let this informant speaking outside of Catholicism speak: 'Without the cooperation of these two, Social Democracy and the Center [...] there is no order and no government today". 'The center has remained faithful to this democratic-republican stance in its by far predominant direction in the years that have followed not his previous principles had been unfaithful "He continues:". the ever so slight time distance, we are where we today about these two processes allows, however, it seems a little calmer judgment, insight into her complex character "(. F. Muralt / Elias Hurwicz )

Less than a month after the article appeared, the consequences of the failure of Political Catholicism were already evident . After the SPD ban at the end of June 1933, the center dissolved itself on July 5 to avoid such a ban.

In 1939 the censorship authority intervened for the first time. The essay "Hodie" (Latin: today ), a historical theological essay by Joseph Bernhart , which was originally supposed to appear at Christmas 1939, was the reason why a Hochland magazine was banned and had to be crushed. Probably not the whole magazine was banned because the censorship officer had not understood the scope and the real meaning of Bernhart's thoughts. The magazine was finally discontinued in April 1941, probably because the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, glorified by the National Socialists, was called “God's murderer” in a short article . With effect from June 1, 1941, the highlands were withdrawn from paper allocation “for reasons of the war economy”, which amounted to a ban.

Evaluation of the intellectual resistance against the NS in the current scientific discussion

For Konrad Ackermann it was "the most important journal of intellectual resistance". Their “anti-National Socialist attitude” had proven to be “uniform and seamless” from 1933 to the 1941 ban. Ralf Retter follows him in this assessment, who also attests that the highlands have “a fundamentally politically motivated anti-stance aimed at overthrowing the regime in the long term”. Hans Dieter Schäfer counts the highlands among the most important publications for the authors of non-fascist literature who remained in the country. The publicist Christian Hufen cites the Russian-German philosopher Fedor Stepun as an example : "From 1933 and until 1940 the Catholic monthly magazine was the only organ with which he repeatedly appeared as a German-speaking publicist at home and abroad."

There are also authors such as Norbert Frei , who confirms that the magazine has taken “a position that is recognizable for the initiated”, which has not gone unnoticed by the regime, but considers the “intellectual resistance” to be overrated in later historiography. The magazine had a “valve function” for those in power and was retained to “channel a potential for opposition that was not considered too dangerous into easily controlled and carefully monitored 'storage spaces' by the police”.

Felix Dirsch considers the “intellectual opposition” of the highlands to be a subtle undertaking and warns against simply applying the now very differentiated term of resistance here.

At the end of 2014 in Mooshausen, the scientific conference “Carl Muth and the Hochland magazine” dealt with these assessments, among other aspects. In his contribution to this conference, Hans Günter Hockerts described the magazine as aloof from National Socialism and also dealt with the points of view of Konrad Ackermann, Norbert Frei and Felix Dirsch.

Post-war period 1946–1974

When the highlands resumed their work after the war, they tried to help shape the cultural scene in Germany in the sense of a cosmopolitan Catholicism. Do that e.g. B. the reviews of Wolfgang Grözinger , which were re-edited by Erwin Rotermund and Heidrun Ehrke-Rotermund .

The discussion about the answer to Hurwicz's questions posed in 1933 from a sufficient period of time is also opened in the Hochland. In 1957 Ernst-Wolfgang Böckenförde published the article The Ethos of Modern Democracy and the Church. 1961 was followed by his famous Hochland essay German Catholicism in the year 1933. A critical consideration .

The magazine took a vehemently negative position on the issue of nuclear armament in the Bundeswehr. In December 1958, an article by Clemens Münster, the co-founder of the Frankfurter Hefte, appears with the title “Can the atom bomb be controlled?” The article comes to the conclusion:

“That the Christian must refuse to be equipped with tactical nuclear weapons just as much as the H-bomb. (…) The West cannot be saved by weapons, the use of which our tradition disavows. Christianity must not be defended by means that undermine its core, the love command. That can be heavy sacrifice, it can mean the downfall for the spiritually leading class. Christians must be ready for suffering, even death, when there is no other way to save the goods entrusted to us. Perhaps we can only save what has been entrusted to us by refraining from defending it by all means. "

The legal scholar Karl Peters and the philosopher Robert Spaemann also published vehemently negative statements .

From August 1952 to September 1965, Wolfgang Grözinger published his collective reviews of the contemporary novel three times a year in the Hochland . They enriched “the knowledge of the literary-critical discourses in the Federal Republic of the 1950s and early 1960s with a far-sighted and confident author who - as especially the strong consideration of the Holocaust and exile literature shows - much more than most of the star critics of his time extra-literary components of novel poetry was interested. "


  • Thomas Pittrof: Carl Muth and the Highlands (1903–1941). In: Thomas Pittrof (Ed.): Catholica. Sources and studies on the literary and cultural history of modern Catholicism, Vol. 4.1. Rombach, Freiburg / Breisgau 2018, ISBN 978-3-7930-9898-0 .
  • Ulrich Bröckling: Catholic intellectuals in the Weimar Republic. Fink, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-7705-2808-5 .
  • Ferdinand Muralt (= Elias Hurwicz): Apocalyptic horsemen. in: highlands. 29th year, 8th issue, May 1932, pp. 97-107.
  • Franz Rappmannsberger: Karl Muth and his magazine Hochland as champions for the internal renewal of Germany . Munich 1952 (also dissertation, University of Munich 1952).
  • Konrad Ackermann: The resistance of the monthly Hochland against National Socialism . Kösel Verlag, Munich 1965 (also dissertation, University of Würzburg 1965).
  • Felix Dirsch: Das "Hochland" - A Catholic-Conservative Magazine Between Literature and Politics 1903–1941 . In: Hans-Christof Kraus (Hrsg.): Conservative magazines between the empire and dictatorship. Five case studies. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-428-11037-4 ( studies and texts for the study of conservatism ).
  • Erwin Rotermund and Heidrun Ehrke-Rotermund (eds.), Wolfgang Grözinger: Panorama des Gegenwartsromans, Collected “Hochland” critics 1952–1965. Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 2004, ISBN 3-506-70116-9 .
  • Maria Cristina Giacomin: Between Catholic Milieu and Nation. Literature and literary criticism in the highlands (1903–1918) (Political and communication science publications by the Görres Society; 9). Schöningh, Paderborn u. a. 2009, ISBN 978-3-506-76729-5 (also dissertation, University of Würzburg 2007)
  • Reinhard Mehring: Carl Schmitt: Aufstieg und Fall , CH Beck, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-406-59224-9 .
  • Frank-Lothar Kroll: Intellectual resistance in the Third Reich. Heinrich Lützeler and National Socialism. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-428-52822-6 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Anselm Salzer : Illustrated history of German literature from the oldest times to the present, Volume 5 . AVG, Regensburg 1932, p. 2368.
  2. Erich Brock: The concept of the political, a discussion with Carl Schmitt. In: Hochland vol. 29 issue 11 (1932), pp. 394–404.
  3. ^ François Mauriac: diary sheets . In: highlands . tape 34 , no. 6 , March 1937, p. 533-544 .
  4. ^ Otto Georg von Simson: Raysky. In: Hochland 34th year (1936/37) issue 12, pp. 508-511.
  5. Wendland, Ulrike: Biographical Handbook of German-Speaking Art Historians in Exile: Life and Work of the Scientists Persecuted and Expelled under National Socialism. (Part 2, p. 644) Saur, Munich 1999; Zugl .: Hamburg. Univ., Diss. 1996 ISBN 3-598-11339-0 .
  6. ^ Paul Mombert: New countries in world economy and world politics. In: Hochland 32nd year (1934/35), pp. 554–557.
  7. Paul Mombert: The increase in lifespan. In: Hochland 34th year (1936/37) issue 8, pp. 152–156.
  8. Klara Marie Faßbinder: On the last works of Gertrud Bäumer. In: Hochland vol. 34 (1936/37) issue 12, pp. 494–156.
  9. Ludwig Bergstrasse: France as it really is. In: Hochland vol. 36 (1936/37) issue 11, pp. 431-434.
  10. Herbert Rüssel: On the history of humanism : Hochland 35th vol. (Feb. 1938) Vol. 1, pp. 409-411.
  11. ^ Rudolf Friedmann: France and the Pan-Arab Movement . In: highlands . tape 32 , no. 8 . Kösel, Kempten May 1935, p. 117-128 .
  12. Blog Immigration Germany 1870-1933: Dr. Rudolf Friedmann. Retrieved February 20, 2019 .
  13. Ewald Erb: The origin of the mask custom . In: highlands . tape 34 , no. 5 , February 1937, p. 449-457 .
  14. Gabriele von Törne: Scherbach was refuge from the Nazis. In: Bonner Generalanzeiger. August 18, 2010, accessed February 21, 2019 .
  15. Ewald Erb: The masks of the earth . In: highlands . tape 34 , no. 5 , February 1937, p. 476-478 .
  16. Hilde Domin: bowl in the oven . In: highlands . tape 47 , 1954, pp. 14 .
  17. Hilde Domin: Our long shadows . In: highlands . tape 48 , 1955, pp. 307 .
  18. ^ Ulrich Bröckling : Catholic intellectuals in the Weimar Republic. Fink, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-7705-2808-5 , p. 31.
  19. Frank-Lothar Kroll: Intellectual resistance in the Third Reich. Heinrich Lützeler and National Socialism. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-428-52822-6 , p. 55.
  20. ^ Rolf Schneider: Defiant, Letters Ludwig von Fickers. In: Die Zeit, December 4, 1987.
  21. Thomas Pittrof: The magazine 'Hochland' and its founder in World War I and in the Weimar Republic. Web publication as PDF (p. 3–4)
  22. ^ Theodor Haecker: On the European Jewish question . In: Hochland 24 (1926/1927) pp. 607-609.
  23. Peter Steinbach : in: Franz Schnabel, The Historian of the Liberal Constitutional State , invitation on the occasion of the 65th anniversary of the attempted coup of July 20, 1944 ( PDF )
  24. F. Muralt (diElias Hurwicz): The Nazi at the crossroads, Highland 30/6 (1932-33) S. 537th
  25. List of burned books
  26. ^ F. Muralt di Elias Hurwicz: Political Catholicism and political culture, Hochland 30/9 (1932/33) pp. 243–244 and 250.
  27. Konrad Ackermann: The resistance of the monthly Hochland against National Socialism . Kösel, Munich 1965, p. 96 f.
  28. Konrad Ackermann: The resistance of the monthly Hochland against National Socialism . Kösel, Munich 1965, p. 100.
  29. Konrad Ackermann: The resistance of the monthly Hochland against National Socialism . Kösel, Munich 1965, p. 183.
  30. ^ Ralf Retter: Between protest and propaganda. The magazine “Junge Kirche” in the Third Reich. Allitera-Verlag, Munich 2009, p. 226f. (see dissertation TU Berlin 2008).
  31. Dieter Schäfer: The non-fascist literature of the "young generation" in National Socialist Germany. In: Horst Denkler, Karl Prümm (Ed.): The German Literature in the Third Reich, Stuttgart 1976, pp. 459–503.
  32. ^ Hufen, Christian: Fedor Stepun: a political intellectual from Russia in Europe; the years 1884–1945. Christian Hufen. Lukas Verlag, Berlin 2001; Zugl .: Univ. Diss., Frankfurt (Oder) 2000, ISBN 3-931836-35-5 , p. 446.
  33. ^ Norbert Frei, Johannes Schmitz: Journalism in the Third Reich . Beck, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-406-33131-9 , p. 68.
  34. ^ Felix Dirsch: Das "Hochland" - A Catholic-Conservative magazine between literature and politics 1903-1941. In: Hans-Christof Kraus (Hrsg.): Conservative magazines between the empire and dictatorship. Five case studies. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-428-11037-4 ( Studies and texts for the study of conservatism . 4), pp. 85–96.
  35. ^ Mooshauser Talks on Church History: Karl Muth and the magazine Hochland
  36. ^ HG Hockerts: Carl Muth and the highlands in the Third Reich. Lecture at the conference Carl Muth and the magazine Hochland (web link see below)
  37. Erwin Rotermund and Heidrun Ehrke-Rotermund (eds.), Wolfgang Grözinger: Panorama des Gegenwartsromans, Collected “Hochland” critics 1952–1965. Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 2004, ISBN 3-506-70116-9 , blurb.
  38. Ernst-Wolfgang Böckenförde: The ethos of modern democracy and the church . In: Hochland, vol. 50, pp. 4-19.
  39. Ernst-Wolfgang Böckenförde: German Catholicism in 1933. A critical consideration . In: Hochland, vol. 53, pp. 215–239.
  40. Clemens Münster: Can the atomic bomb be controlled? Hochland 51, no. 2 (1958/59)
  41. ^ Karl Peters: Problems of nuclear armament. Hochland 51, no. 1 (1958/59)
  42. ^ Robert Spaemann: On the philosophical-theological discussion about the atomic bomb. Hochland 51, no.3 (1958/59).
  43. Erwin Rotermund and Heidrun Ehrke-Rotermund (eds.), Wolfgang Grözinger: Panorama des Gegenwartsromans, Collected “Hochland” critics 1952–1965. Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 2004, ISBN 3-506-70116-9 , p. 13.