Kurhausstrasse 9 (Bad Kissingen)
The building at Kurhausstrasse 9 in Kurhausstrasse in Bad Kissingen , the major district town of the Lower Franconian district of Bad Kissingen , is one of the Bad Kissingen architectural monuments and is registered in the Bavarian list of monuments under number D-6-72-114-33 .
The core of the property, which consists of the northern part of the current building, was built in 1834 by a Würzburg architect in the classicist style on behalf of Wernecker Franz Pfülf . This core was about 32 meters long and built with three storeys, eleven axes and a central projection .
In the course of its history, according to the Bad Kissingen address books, the house has seen its house number changed several times. For example, in 1838 it was 82a, then 91 (1848 and 1865), 115 and 116 (1880), Kurhausstrasse 5 (1903 and 1922/24), Adolf-Hitler-Strasse 9 (1936/36), Rooseveltstrasse 9 (1948 ) and Kurhausstraße 9 (today).
Karl Panizza (1840–1843 and 1848–1855)
Karl Pfülb leased the property in 1840 for a period of three years to Oskar Panizza's father Karl Panizza (born September 30, 1808 in Würzburg; † November 26, 1855). Karl Panizza's father had settled in Würzburg as an Italian immigrant. Karl Panizza grew up in Würzburg and later worked as a waiter and head waiter. He came to Bad Kissingen before 1840 and worked for the Bolzano spa tenants . After the death of the Bolzano brothers in 1838 and 1839, Panizza became the tenant of the Kurhausstrasse 9 property in 1840; The renaming to Russischer Hof or “Hotel de Russie”, which was acquired from the “Grand Hôtel garni” (later “Haus Collard” at Kurplatz 6), probably goes back to him.
On April 17, 1844, he married Mathilde Speeth (1821–1915), a late Protestant woman from Würzburg, who was baptized Catholic and published books under the pseudonym Siona .
After Panizza's three-year lease had expired, Adolph Buob, head waiter at the Russian Court, bought the hotel for 80,000 guilders . The Swiss company "Lucas, Preis-werk-Burkard and Consorten" financed the purchase price by registering a mortgage. In the garden of the Russian Court, Buob built stables , coach houses and business premises for the Kissingen post office, which he also took over. In 1848 Adolph Buob had to file for bankruptcy. The Russian court went to the Swiss mortgage creditors who put the house up for sale.
Karl Panizza, who had worked in Bad Kreuznach in the meantime from 1843 to 1847 as well as from 1847 in Wilhelmsbad near Hanau, acquired the Russischer Hof together with his wife in 1850 with the help of a surety for 50,000 guilders. The Panizza couple took out mortgages of 38,000 guilders in favor of the “Basler Firma” and 12,000 guilders in favor of the surety. The furniture cost a further 8,000 guilders.
In May 1850, the Panizza couple and their three children moved into the Russian court. The income was initially limited, as the house was closed in the season 1849 and in 1850 accommodated fewer guests than expected; in addition, some of the guests who were present left early when the pages were rampant among the staff . But the family's financial situation remained serious in the following years as well, as Karl Panizza led a dissolute lifestyle and his wife Mathilde gave birth to three more children, including the later writer Oskar Panizza in 1853 .
On November 26, 1855, Karl Panizza died unexpectedly of typhus.
Karl and Mathilde Panizza's children were Maria, Felix, Karl (* February 15, 1852, † August 29, 1916 in Kiel, District Court Councilor), Oskar and Ida.
Mathilde Panizza (1855-1883)
Under the leadership of his widow Mathilde Panizza, the financial situation of the Russian court improved through thrift and through auctioning of unneeded furniture. In 1857, on the one hand, Tsar Alexander II and Tsarina Marija Alexandrovna with their children Alexei and Marija and, on the other hand, Adalbert von Prussia spent a spa stay at the Russian court.
At the beginning of the year the good financial situation of the Russian court was dampened by the Sardinian war ; Nevertheless, all mortgages could be settled except for the first mortgage. Major repairs had to be made to the house in 1863 after the half-timbering of the house shifted from the stone walls of the building. In January 1864, Mathilde Panizzas married Catholic, later evangelical daughter Maria (born June 3, 1846 in Kreuznach, † May 16, 1925 in Munich) Gustav Collard, the accountant of the Russian court from Venlo in the Netherlands.
German War of 1866
In connection with the Battle of Kissingen on July 10, 1866 in connection with the German War , the "Hotel de Russie" accommodated Prince Karl of Bavaria and Lieutenant General Oskar von Zoller . Combat operations took place on the entire hotel grounds. After the end of the war, the staff of the Prussian army under General Eduard Vogel von Falckenstein quartered the Russian court.
Mathilde Panizza gave the Prussian state free of charge a piece of land owned by her on Kapellenstrasse opposite the chapel cemetery , where heavy fighting also took place, for the erection of the Germania monument .
Extension from 1874
In 1872, the founder of the Hammelburg foundation, Karl von Hess , owner of the "Hotel Karl von Hess" in the vicinity of the Russian Court, died. Heinrich Culmbacher from Meiningen became the new owner of the “Hotel Karl von Hess”. Gustav Collard had also shown interest in taking over the “Hotel Karl von Hess”, but he turned out to be too timid. Since the "Hotel Karl von Hess" threatened to become a serious competitor, Mathilde Panizza and Gustav Collard acquired the neighboring house to the south of the Russian Court in 1874 from its owner, the privateer and spa owner Th. Sauer for 46,000 guilders.
Due to the poor state of construction of the building, it was demolished at Gustav Collard's instigation and the Russische Hof was expanded on the vacated property. The expansion was financed through the sale of securities worth 246,000 guilders. As part of the expansion work under architect Gleißner, the length of the building doubled and another risalit was created. Later, both risalits of the extended building were supplemented with decorations and dome crowns. The completed building was inaugurated on May 21, 1875.
Felix Panizza (1883-1897)
In 1881 Mathilde Panizza's son Felix (* March 18, 1848 - March 6, 1908 in Auerbach), from 1880 to 1882 also son Karl, became a member of the management (Karl was baptized Catholic, later became a Protestant and a hotel owner in Hong Kong). In 1882 Mathilde Panizza moved to Munich. In 1883 Gustav Collard left the Russian court and one year later acquired the property built by Adam Hailmann at the address Am Kurgarten 6 , which later became "Haus Collard". From now on Felix Panizza was the sole managing director of the Russian court.
From July 22, 1891, the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel spent his second Bad Kissingen spa stay at the Russischer Hof (Nobel had his first spa stay in the village in 1875 at the Bayerischer Hof). This spa stay is noted in the spa list under the entry "Alfred Nobel with Mr. Son and Miss Daughter from Paris". Since the unmarried Nobel had no children, he may have been accompanied by nieces and nephews, as on some of his other cures.
Fritz and Lina Haas (1897–1924)
In 1897, after 47 years of family ownership, the Russischer Hof was sold to Fritz Haas for 750,000 marks. Fritz Haas arranged for a thorough renovation of the hotel. The number of spa rooms was increased to 140, an elevator was installed, and electrical lighting was installed.
At this time, the Russian court's guests expanded. So this was no longer only visited by noble guests as before, but also by guests from industry, politics, science and art such as Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg , Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin and writer George Bernard Shaw . On July 25, 1910, William Waldorf Astor, 1st Viscount Astor, arrived at the Russian court for a cure.
After the death of Franz Haas in 1903, his widow Lina Haas ran the Russian court until the end of 1924.
With effect from January 1, 1925, Lina Haas leased the Russischer Hof to a consortium consisting of the administration of the Bad Kissingen State Baths (von Hessing Foundation) and the town of Bad Kissingen. Under the new management, the Russian court underwent another thorough modernization. Each room was equipped with steam heating, state telephone connections and running cold and warm water.
When the National Socialists came to power , the Russian court was renamed Reichshof and was now at Adolf-Hitler-Straße 9. On the instructions of the Reich Defense Commissioner Mainfranken, the Reichshof was confiscated on October 28, 1943 in favor of SKF ball bearing factories in Schweinfurt. The premises served as office space; Construction work to establish air raid shelters took place. After the German surrender on May 8, 1945, SKF had to leave the building. Now refugees and so-called “ displaced persons ” have been accommodated here.
From 1946, two departments of the Bad Kissingen Central Office of the German Weather Service were housed in the Russischer Hof - now at the address Roosevelt-Straße 9. By 1957, the activity of the weather service in Bad Kissingen was gradually relocated to Offenbach. After 1957 the Russischer Hof stood empty for about two years.
In 1959 Dorothea Deeg, the wife of the Bad Kissingen lawyer Peter Deeg , acquired the Russian court. Shortly before, she had leased the Hohenzollern House, which her parents had inherited and which was only a few hundred meters away from the Russian Court, to the Württemberg State Insurance Institute (LVA). After this turned out to be very lucrative, she had similar plans with the Russian court.
The LVA opened the Russischer Hof on August 1, 1960 as the “Kurparksanatorium” (today's “Rehabilitation Clinic at the Kurpark”). Under the direction of chief physician Dr. Schröder were treated here for heart, circulatory and metabolic diseases. As the renovation of the Russischer Hof, which had begun, became increasingly extensive, the Deeg family sold the Russischer Hof to the LVA. In 1962 the LVA acquired the Russischer Hof for about 4 million DM. In the following period the house - from 1972 under the name "Kurklinik der Landesversicherungsanstalt Württemberg" - was constantly expanded and from 1967 extensively renovated and in 1972 a farm building and a heating center were added .
Clinic at the Kurpark
After the LVA had temporary plans to give up its only clinic outside of Baden-Württemberg, in the early 1980s it made the decision to set up a rheumatism clinic in the Russischer Hof. From 1986 to 1989, the main building was redesigned in compliance with the requirements of the monument protection authorities to preserve the facade facing Kurhausstrasse. The outbuildings and the garden villa were demolished. With the "Haus Kreuzberg" a new ward block with 143 beds was built. During the construction period, patient treatment was outsourced to the “Preußischer Hof” in Bismarckstrasse.
In March 1989 the inauguration took place under the new name "Klinik am Kurpark".
From October 1995 to January 1997, another bed wing was built with the Saaleblick house; the inauguration took place on July 1, 1997. Since 1999, the property built in 1873/74 at Schloßstraße 1 has served as an annex to the “Klinik am Kurpark”.
In 2001 the “Café de Russie” was opened in the main building. In 2002 the marine hospital in Bad Kissingen was acquired. However, plans made in 2003 to treat patients at the property were abandoned in 2004. The property that has been owned by the LVA since then has been vacant.
- Thomas Ahnert, Peter Weidisch (eds.): 1200 years Bad Kissingen, 801-2001, facets of a city's history. (= Festschrift for the anniversary year and volume accompanying the exhibition of the same name / special publication from the Bad Kissingen City Archives). Verlag TA Schachenmayer, Bad Kissingen 2001, ISBN 3-929278-16-2 , pp. 93-138; 284-285.
- Denis André Chevalley, Stefan Gerlach: City of Bad Kissingen (= Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation [Hrsg.]: Monuments in Bavaria . Volume VI.75 / 2 ). Karl M. Lipp Verlag, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-87490-577-2 , p. 48 f .
- Hanns Klüber: From the luxury hotel to the “Am Kurpark” rehab clinic: The Russischer Hof in Bad Kissingen. Bad Kissingen 2004.
- Jürgen Müller : Oskar Panizza - attempt at an immanent interpretation. Medical dissertation Würzburg (1990) 1991, p. 1.
- Jürgen Müller: Oskar Panizza - attempt at an immanent interpretation. Medical dissertation Würzburg (1990) 1991, p. 31 f.
- Hermann Bannizza: contributions to the history of gender Bannizza / Panizza. Neustadt an der Aisch 1966 (= special print German Family Archives. 32), pp. 282 and 286.
- Jürgen Müller: Oskar Panizza - attempt at an immanent interpretation. Medical dissertation Würzburg (1990) 1991, p. 32 f.
- Jürgen Müller: Oskar Panizza - attempt at an immanent interpretation. Medical dissertation Würzburg (1990) 1991, p. 32.
- Jürgen Müller: Oskar Panizza - attempt at an immanent interpretation. Medical dissertation Würzburg (1990) 1991, pp. 1 and 32.
- Nils Aschenbeck : Peter Deeg - Verstrickt im 20. Jahrhundert , Munich 2016, p. 340 f.