List of ranks and branches of service in the Roman army
- Centurion ; the commander of a centurion
- Decurio ; Guide of 30-40 riders ( Turma ) (in the early Republic: see NCOs)
- Legatus ; the commander of a legion
- Praefectus ; various functions in administration and military; u. A. Commander of an auxiliary force unit
- Praefectus Castrorum ; Commander of the camp and supply leader of a legion
- Primus pilus ; the most senior centurion in a legion
- Tribune ; Staff officer in a legion
In the late imperial era , the following higher officer titles were added:
- Comes ; a regional commander; superior to the Dux
- Dux ; the military commander of a province
- Magister militum ; Commander-in-Chief of a Union of Comitatenses
Lower-ranking officers and non-commissioned officers
Lower-ranking officers and NCOs are known as principals . They include:
- Aquilifer ; since the army reform of Marius the highest-ranking standard bearer of the legion, he wore the legionary eagle
- Beneficiarius ; some sort of secretary in the Legion
- Cornicularius ; He was used as an orderly officer and in this function led the administrative staff of senior officers. In the rank he was under a legionary centurion and above the Actuarius .
- Decurio ; in the early days of the republic the leader of a group of ten legionaries (infantry) or horsemen, (later: see officers)
- Imaginifer ; in the imperial era the bearer of a portrait of the ruling emperor
- Optio ad spem (ordinis) / Optio spei; a higher-ranking Optio centuriae , who waited as a candidate for the next vacancy as a centurion and was able to represent it. There were a number of optio ranks such as the optio scholae which could also be assigned to ordinary soldiers as special tasks in the form of ad hoc optiones .
- Signifer ; the bearer of the signum (a standard used by a centurion )
- Tesserarius ; the head of the guardroom of a centurion
- Vexillarius ; the bearer of the vexillum (a standard used by various entities)
At the time of the republic , Roman citizens were divided into income classes by the census . Since the conscript had to procure his weapons and equipment himself, the census also determined the allocation to the respective troop unit, which was then differently well equipped depending on the soldiers' ability. The soldiers were therefore subdivided as follows:
- Hastatus ; a lightly armed man, equipped with a thrust lance (see Hasta ), later with 2 javelins, sword and shield
- Princeps ; a heavily armed man, equipped with a thrust lance (later with 2 javelins), sword, body armor and shield
- Triarius ; a heavily armed man, armed with a spear, sword, body armor and shield
The armament of the legionnaires was standardized through the army reform of Marius , the aforementioned troop units then no longer differed in terms of equipment for a long time, but the soldiers were assigned to them with increasing experience and seniority.
- Veles ; a lightly armed man, armed with several light javelins and a small shield
other lightly armed men:
- Antesignanus ; equipped with light javelins and a small shield
- Rorarius ; equipped with light javelins and slingshot
- Clibanarius ; a heavily armored rider
- Contarius ; a rider who was armed with a 3–4 m long lance; possibly a precursor of the cataphractus
- Eques sagittarius ; a mounted archer
- Kataphraktos ; a heavily armored rider
- Evocatus ; a veteran who has voluntarily returned to military service after the end of his regular service
- Explorator ; some kind of scout or scout
- Ferentarius ; a lightly armed man of the imperial era
- Speculator ; some kind of scout or scout
- Tiro ; the recruit in training before joining the army as Miles
The Aeneatores were responsible for sending orders. They include:
- Bucinator ; a kind of trumpeter
- Cornices ; some kind of horn blower
- Tubicene ; a kind of tuba blower
- Actuarius ; Provisioners, responsible for supplying troops. If the Actuarii came from the ranks of the military during the principate, they were also purely civil servants in the barracks in late antiquity.
- Architectus; builder
- Ballistrarius; Gun operation
- Capsarius ; paramedic
- Fabrius; Blacksmith
- Ferrarius; Iron smith
- Gubernator; Helmsman
- Lapidarius; Stonemason
- Librarius; Clerk
- Medicus: doctor
- Mensor ; land surveyor
- Naupegus; Shipbuilders
- Sagittarius; Archer or arrow maker
There were also the following soldiers or civilians with special tasks:
- Cacula; an officer boy
- Custos armorum ; a blacksmith who was responsible for the repair and production of hand weapons
- Frumentarius ; originally a soldier who was responsible for the procurement of food
- Mulio ; a muleteer who was responsible for the mule and the tent of a contubernium (tent community of eight men)
- Pabulator ; a soldier who was responsible for obtaining feed for the farm animals
- Strator ; a groom
At the time of the republic the army was structured as follows:
- Legio ; 4,200 Roman citizens, divided into 1,200 Velites, 1,200 Hastati, 1,200 Principes and 600 Triarii. There were also 300 riders.
- Manipel ; consisting of two centuries
- Centurie ; originally 100, later 80 men
After the army reform of Marius and in the (early) imperial period, the army was structured as follows:
- Legio; 5–6,000 men in ten cohorts. There were also 120 riders.
- Cohort ; consisting of three manipulas
Furthermore, there were guard units in the imperial era :
After their dissolution in 312, the following guard troops were formed in late antiquity :
In the late Imperial Era, the Roman army changed fundamentally. An old legion was often divided into several new units ( vexillations ) and sometimes changed its name. Some of their vexillations were now often listed as separate legions in the troop lists (see Notitia dignitatum ). The new units were basically differentiated as follows:
- Comitatenses ; a cavalry army detached from the border army as a mobile intervention force
- Limitanei ; Units stationed directly at the border
As part of border security, there were also small, mostly independently operating auxiliary troops for security and reconnaissance missions (see number ).
The annual remuneration of the soldiers (in Denarii ) is given as follows:
|rank||13 BC Chr.||83 AD||197 ad||212 AD||235 AD|
|Soldier in an auxiliary force unit||187.5||250||500||750||1,500|
|Soldier in a legion||225||300||600||900||1,800|
|Rider in a Cohors equitata||225||300||600||900||1,800|
|Rider in an ala||262.5||350||700||1,050||2,100|
|Rider in a legion||262.5||350||700||1,050||2,100|
|Centurion in an auxiliary unit||937.5||1,250||2,500||3,750||7,500|
|Decurio in a Cohors equitata||1,125||1,500||3,000||4,500||9,000|
|Decurio in an ala||1,312.5||1,750||3,500||5,250||10,500|
|Centurion in a legion||3,375||4,500||9,000||13,500||27,000|
In the case of the teams, the indication of the pay refers to a single soldier ( Miles gregarius ) and an immunis . The principales , on the other hand, received a higher pay: a sesquiplicarius received 1.5 times the pay , a duplicarius double the pay.
The Cornicularius or Librarius of the unit was responsible for the payment of wages and the administration of the accounts . A certain amount was deducted from the pay to be paid out for various expenses. In addition, the soldier had to save part of his pay in the cash register of the unit ( in deposito ). The amount of these deductions is estimated at 40 to 80 percent. How the pay was paid exactly (whether in precious metal, bronze money or mixed) is controversial. In addition to their regular pay, the soldiers occasionally received donativa ; these were probably paid for in gold. An inscription shows that an officer was paid in gold.
The annual pay was given to the soldiers in three payments, on January 1st, May 1st and September 1st. In addition to the pay, there were also other cash payments for separate expenses; for example, a case is known from AD 179 in which riders of the Ala Veterana Gallica received an annual pitch of 25 denarii.
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