List of hydrogen technologies

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The list of hydrogen technologies includes processes for the production, storage and use of hydrogen .

Hydrogen production technologies

technology Brief description
Steam reforming In steam reforming, hydrocarbons are converted into hydrogen through an allothermic or autothermal reaction.
Partial oxidation In partial oxidation , hydrogen is converted from hydrocarbons such as natural gas or heating oil in an exothermic process in the absence of oxygen .
Autothermal reforming The autothermal reforming is to optimize a combination of steam reforming and partial oxidation to the efficiency.
Kværner method The process developed by the Norwegian company Kværner completely separates hydrocarbons in a plasma torch at 1600 ° C into activated carbon (pure carbon) and hydrogen.
Pyrolysis and biomass gasification In pyrolysis, hydrogen is generated through a thermo-chemical breakdown of organic compounds. In contrast to gasification and combustion , this takes place exclusively under the influence of heat and without additional oxygen.
fermentation In fermentation, hydrogen is obtained directly from biomass by anaerobic microorganisms.
Water electrolysis In water electrolysis, hydrogen is generated with an electrolyser by means of an electric current that is applied to two electrodes located in water.
High temperature electrolysis Water electrolysis, in which the efficiency is improved through high temperatures (up to 900 ° C)
Chlor-alkali electrolysis In the case of chlor-alkali electrolysis , hydrogen and chlorine are produced as by-products of the manufacture of caustic soda and potassium hydroxide in the chemical industry
Thermochemical manufacturing The direct splitting of water vapor into hydrogen and oxygen takes place above a temperature of 1,700 ° C. This process is interesting in connection with solar tower power plants .
Photobiological production During the photobiological production of hydrogen, algae absorb sunlight. By influencing the photosynthesis they operate , water is split into hydrogen and oxygen.
Biohydrogen production As Biohydrogen is hydrogen (H 2 ) denotes that of biomass or by means of live biomass is produced.

Hydrogen storage technologies

technology Brief description
Pressure accumulator Hydrogen is stored in plastic containers under high pressure (up to 800 bar). Light weight, well suited for small quantities. Use e.g. B. for vehicle tanks
Liquid storage Hydrogen is liquefied (LH2) and stored under ambient pressure at low temperatures (boiling point −252.8 ° C, 20.4 K). Well suited for large quantities. Use e.g. B. for hydrogen filling stations
Metal hydride storage The hydrogen is stored in the gaps in a (cold) metal grid and released again when the storage tank warms up. High weight. Use e.g. B. in submarines
Storage by adsorption Accumulation of hydrogen molecules on the surfaces of substances with a high internal surface such as B. Zeolites , Metal Organic Frameworks or Carbon Nanotubes .
Reversibly chemically bound hydrogen Storage, for example, in the form of liquid organic hydrogen storage (LOHC) (e.g. dibenzyltoluene ) or formic acid .
Irreversibly chemically bound hydrogen Storage in the form of methanol or methane, for example .

Hydrogen distribution technologies and infrastructure

technology Brief description
Ionic compressor Compression of hydrogen up to 900 bar (GH 2 )
Reciprocating compressors Compression of hydrogen up to 850 bar (GH 2 )
Hydrogen liquefier Liquefaction of hydrogen (LH 2 )
Hydrogen tankers Tank vehicles for liquid or pressurized hydrogen
Hydrogen pipelines Transport and storage of hydrogen in pipelines
Hydrogen filling stations Public hydrogen filling stations are mostly affiliated with fossil fuel filling stations. Depending on regional needs, they sell liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) or pressurized hydrogen ( GH 2 350 bar or 700 bar). The network of hydrogen filling stations in Germany is being expanded.
Hydrogen highway Arrangement of hydrogen filling stations within the vehicle range, which makes it possible to cover longer distances with hydrogen vehicles.

Hydrogen use technologies

Fuel cells

technology Brief description
Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) Alkaline electrolyte. Use in space travel and as a submarine propulsion system
Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEMFC) Use in fuel cell vehicles (electrical efficiency up to 60%)
Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) Use for powering laptops and other mobile devices
Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) Use as a combined heat and power unit
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) In addition to hydrogen, it can also be operated directly with natural gas or biogas. Use in larger block-type thermal power stations
Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) In addition to hydrogen, it can also be operated directly with natural gas, biogas or propane gas. Use for power generation and in combined heat and power plants. Can also be operated with a downstream turbine due to the high output temperatures in thermal power stations.

Vehicle drives

technology Brief description
Fuel cell cars Electric vehicle whose energy is generated by a fuel cell.
Fuel cell buses Use in some major cities, e.g. B. Hamburg
Fuel cell rail vehicles Rail vehicles that are powered by fuel cells
Fuel cell two-wheelers Bicycles and scooters powered by fuel cells
Hydrogen combustion engine Modified Otto engine that runs on hydrogen

Other drives

technology Brief description
Rocket engines , Rocket engines, the hydrogen and oxygen as fuel use
Drives for surface ships Ships powered by fuel cells or hydrogen engines
Propulsion systems for submarines Submarines that are powered by fuel cells while diving so that they can remain under water for up to two weeks.
Aircraft engines Manned and unmanned aircraft that are powered by fuel cells or hydrogen engines

Combined heat and power plants, generating sets

technology Brief description
Fuel cell combined heat and power plant Fuel cells that generate electricity and heat. The efficiency is up to 90%
Island power supply Self-sufficient energy supply for islands, e.g. B. Utsira
Emergency power supply ( UPS ) Uninterruptible power supply, e.g. B. for data centers
Power supply for commercial aircraft Power supply through fuel cells including the production of service water and low-oxygen air for flooding kerosene tanks.


technology Brief description
Hydrogen detector Finding hydrogen concentrations in the air
Hydrogen microsensor Detecting leaks in hydrogen plants

See also

Individual evidence

  1. List of hydrogen filling stations (Source: Status: is continuously updated).