list of hydrogen technologies includes processes for the production, storage and use of hydrogen .
Hydrogen production technologies
In steam reforming, hydrocarbons are converted into hydrogen through an
allothermic or autothermal reaction.
partial oxidation , hydrogen is converted from hydrocarbons such as natural gas or heating oil in an exothermic process in the absence of oxygen .
autothermal reforming is to optimize a combination of steam reforming and partial oxidation to the efficiency.
The process developed by the Norwegian company Kværner completely separates hydrocarbons in a
plasma torch at 1600 ° C into activated carbon (pure carbon) and hydrogen.
Pyrolysis and biomass gasification
In pyrolysis, hydrogen is generated through a thermo-chemical breakdown of organic compounds. In contrast to
gasification and combustion , this takes place exclusively under the influence of heat and without additional oxygen.
In fermentation, hydrogen is obtained directly from biomass by anaerobic microorganisms.
Water electrolysis In water electrolysis, hydrogen is generated with an
electrolyser by means of an electric current that is applied to two electrodes located in water.
High temperature electrolysis
Water electrolysis, in which the efficiency is improved through high temperatures (up to 900 ° C)
In the case of
chlor-alkali electrolysis , hydrogen and chlorine are produced as by-products of the manufacture of caustic soda and potassium hydroxide in the chemical industry
The direct splitting of water vapor into hydrogen and oxygen takes place above a temperature of 1,700 ° C. This process is interesting in connection with
solar tower power plants .
During the photobiological production of hydrogen, algae absorb sunlight. By influencing the
photosynthesis they operate , water is split into hydrogen and oxygen.
Biohydrogen is hydrogen (H 2 ) denotes that of biomass or by means of live biomass is produced.
Hydrogen storage technologies
Hydrogen distribution technologies and infrastructure
Compression of hydrogen up to 900 bar (GH
Compression of hydrogen up to 850 bar (GH
Liquefaction of hydrogen (LH
Tank vehicles for liquid or pressurized hydrogen
Transport and storage of hydrogen in pipelines
Hydrogen filling stations
Public hydrogen filling stations are mostly affiliated with fossil fuel filling stations. Depending on regional needs, they sell liquid hydrogen (LH
2 ) or pressurized hydrogen ( GH 2 350 bar or 700 bar). The network of hydrogen filling stations in Germany is being expanded.
Arrangement of hydrogen filling stations within the vehicle range, which makes it possible to cover longer distances with hydrogen vehicles.
Hydrogen use technologies
Alkaline fuel cell (AFC)
Alkaline electrolyte. Use in space travel and as a submarine propulsion system
Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEMFC)
Use in fuel cell vehicles (electrical efficiency up to 60%)
Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)
Use for powering laptops and other mobile devices
Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC)
Use as a combined heat and power unit
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC)
In addition to hydrogen, it can also be operated directly with natural gas or biogas. Use in larger block-type thermal power stations
Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)
In addition to hydrogen, it can also be operated directly with natural gas, biogas or propane gas. Use for power generation and in combined heat and power plants. Can also be operated with a downstream turbine due to the high output temperatures in thermal power stations.
Combined heat and power plants, generating sets
Fuel cell combined heat and power plant
Fuel cells that generate electricity and heat. The efficiency is up to 90%
Island power supply
Self-sufficient energy supply for islands, e.g. B.
Emergency power supply (
Uninterruptible power supply, e.g. B. for data centers
Power supply for commercial aircraft
Power supply through fuel cells including the production of service water and low-oxygen air for flooding kerosene tanks.
List of hydrogen filling stations (Source: H2Stations.org Status: is continuously updated). <img src="//de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:CentralAutoLogin/start?type=1x1" alt="" title="" width="1" height="1" style="border: none; position: absolute;">