List of machining processes
This list provides an overview of the metal-cutting manufacturing processes . Like the processes, it is divided into two parts: Machining with a geometrically defined cutting edge refers to processes in which the number and geometry of the cutting edges are known. The machining with geometrically un certain cutting other hand refers to methods in which neither the geometry of the cutting is known yet their number.
In the second part, on machining with a geometrically indeterminate cutting edge, it is also specified whether the grains , the edges of which act as cutting edges, are bound - as a grinding wheel , for example - or loosely - as a paste , for example . In addition, the process principle is specified for these processes: When grinding, the grains are forced onto certain paths, which is why it is considered to be path-bound. When honing, on the other hand, the honing stones of the tool are pressed onto the workpiece with a certain force; so it is force-bound. During lapping, the grains have a certain space between the surface of the workpiece and that of the tool (= space-bound). The kinetic energy with which the grains hit the workpiece surface acts during jet cutting (= energy-bound).
Machining with a geometrically defined cutting edge
|Procedure||Tool||machine||Accuracy ( ISO tolerance /
mean roughness depth Rz)
|Definition according to DIN 8589||Others|
|Turning is machining with a closed (mostly circular) cutting movement and any feed movement in a plane perpendicular to the cutting direction. The axis of rotation of the cutting movement maintains its position in relation to the workpiece regardless of the feed movement.||The workpiece is a turned part . In practice, the workpiece usually rotates.|
|drilling machine||IT14-11 (drilling)
250-63 µm (drilling)
25-20 µm ( countersinking )
10-4 µm (reaming)
|Drilling, countersinking, reaming is machining with a closed circular cutting movement, in which the tool allows a feed movement only in the direction of the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the cutting movement maintains its position in relation to the tool and workpiece regardless of the feed movement.||The feature is a hole . Mostly performed with rotating tools, on lathes also with rotating workpiece.|
|Milling||Milling tool||Milling machine||IT12-IT7
|Milling is cutting with a circular cutting movement assigned to the tool and any feed movement. The axis of rotation of the cutting movement maintains its position in relation to the tool regardless of the feed movement.||For creating flat and general shapes. The feed direction angle changes constantly, while in most processes it is a constant 90 °.|
|Planing and slotting||Planing chisel||
|Planing or slotting is chipping with step-by-step, repeated, mostly straight-line cutting movements and a step-by-step feed movement perpendicular to the cutting direction.||Very unproductive, almost completely displaced by milling. Important special variants are gear planing and gear shaping for gear manufacturing.|
|Clearing||Broaching tool||Broaching machine||IT10-IT8
|Broaching is machining with multi-toothed tools with straight, also screw-shaped or circular cutting movements. The feed movement is replaced by the staggering of the cutting teeth of the tool.||Very productive with complicated grooves.|
|Saws||saw||Sawing machine||Sawing is cutting with a circular or straight cutting movement assigned to the tool and (any) feed movement in a plane perpendicular to the cutting direction for separating or slitting workpieces with a multi-toothed tool with a narrow cutting width.||With circular saws, the cutting movement is circular, the angle of the feed direction changes constantly. With band or hacksaws, the cutting movement is straight and the feed direction angle is a constant 90 °.|
|Filing machine||Filing or rasping is cutting with repeated straight or circular cutting movements and low chip thickness using a tool with teeth of small height that follow one another closely.|
|Brush chips||Brush with metal wire||Brush machine||Brush chipping is chipping with a brush tool, primarily to change the surface structure but also the shape of workpieces.||See also below|
Scraping is cutting with a scraping tool (scraper) to change the workpiece surface, whereby the scraper is guided along the surface and the thickness of the chipping is controlled by the contact pressure.
Chiseling is cutting with a geometrically defined cutting edge to produce any workpiece surface, in which the chips are cut off by hitting the tool (chisel). The chisel is applied at a steep angle to the workpiece surface.
Cutting with a geometrically undefined cutting edge
|Procedure||Tool||machine||grain||Procedural principle||Accuracy (ISO, Rz)||Definition according to DIN 8589|
|Grinding with a rotating tool ( grinding for short )||Grinding wheel||Grinding machine||bound||bound away||IT8-IT1
|Grinding with rotating tools is cutting with multi-edged tools, the geometrically indeterminate cutting edges of which are formed by a large number of bonded grains of natural or synthetic abrasives and which cut the material at high cutting speed, usually with the workpiece and the abrasive grain not in constant contact.|
belt belt sander
|Belt grinder||bound||bound away||IT8-IT1
|Belt grinding is cutting with a multi-edged tool made of abrasive grains on a backing (grinding belt), which revolves over at least two rotating rollers and is pressed against the workpiece to be ground in the contact area by one of these rollers, another additional support element or without a support element and its geometrically indeterminate Cutting at high speed, with no constant contact between the workpiece and the abrasive grain, cut off the material.|
|Lifting loops||Grindstone||Grinding machine||bound||bound away||IT8-IT1
|Stroke grinding is cutting with a non-rotating tool, the geometrically indeterminate cutting edges of which are formed by a large number of bonded abrasive grains and which cut the material through a reciprocating, essentially straight cutting movement (stroke).|
|Honing||Honahle||Honing machine||bound||bound away
|Honing is cutting with multi-edged tools, the geometrically indeterminate cutting edges of which are formed by a large number of bonded grains of natural or synthetic abrasives and which cut the material with constant contact between the workpiece and the abrasive grain.|
|Lapping||Lapping agent||Lapping machine||loose||space-bound||IT4-IT5
R t below 0.5 µm
|Lapping is cutting with loose grain (lapping mixture) distributed in a liquid or paste, which is guided on a counterpart (lapping tool) that is mostly shape-transferring, with grinding paths of the individual grains that are as non-directional as possible.|
|Jet cutting||loose||energy bound||Blasting is cutting with the help of blasting media, which are blasted onto the surfaces to be treated by means of energy carriers in a pressure or centrifugal process.|
|Sliding chips||loose||Sliding chipping (formerly drum chipping) is chipping in which irregular relative movements take place between workpieces and a large number of loose abrasive grains or an abrasive, which cause the chip removal.|
|Brush chips||Brush with abrasive bristles||Brush machine||Brush chipping is chipping with a brush tool, primarily to change the surface structure but also the shape of workpieces.||See also above|
- Heisel, Klocke, Uhlmann, Spur: Handbuch Spanen. Hanser, 2014, p. 23 f.
- Fritz, Schulze: Manufacturing technology. 11th edition, p. 4.
- Metal expertise. [Main volume]. 54., revised. Ed., 1st Dr. Verl. Europa-Lehrmittel, Nourney, Vollmer, Haan-Gruiten 2003, ISBN 3-8085-1154-0 , p. 122 .
- Degner: Spanende Formung , Hanser, 17th edition, 2015, p. 117.
- Degner: Spanende Formung , Hanser, 17th edition, 2015, p. 117.
- König, Klocke: Manufacturing process 1. 8th edition. P. 10.
- Heinz Tschätsch: Practice of machining technology. 5th edition, p. 314.
- Heinz Tschätsch: Practice of machining technology. 7th edition, p. 285.