Mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana ), illustration
The mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana ), and mangosteen , mangosteen tree , mangostin or Mangostinbaum called, is a plant of the genus Garcinia in the family of clusiaceae . The word "mangosteen" comes from Malay. The fruit of this tropical tree, called mangosteen or just mangosteen , is edible and rich in antioxidants .
Appearance and foliage leaf
The mangosteen tree grows as an evergreen tree that reaches heights of growth of 7 to 25 meters. The mangosteen tree is relatively slow-growing and can live well over 100 years. It takes a seedling two years to reach a height of 30 centimeters. The bark is initially light green and smooth and later dark brown and rough. If injured, yellow milky sap escapes from all parts of the plant .
The (cross) opposite, bare leaves on the branches are divided into a petiole and a leaf blade. The petiole is about two inches long. The simple, thick, leathery and shiny leaf blade is 14 to 25 inches long and 5 to 10 inches wide. It is eilanzettlich to ob-eilanzettlich or elliptical, lanceolate and entire margins and at the tip rounded to acuminate or pointed.
Mangosteen trees are dioeciously separated sexes ( diocesan ). The functionally unisexual flowers are four-fold with a double flower envelope. The female flowers are slightly larger than the male. There are four green-reddish sepals and four petals . The sepals are boat-shaped and rounded, the petals are fleshy and obovate. The short-stalked, male flowers sit in groups of two to nine or individually at the branch tips. Its many short stamens are arranged in four bundles and a large pestle is present. The female flowers sit individually or in pairs on the branch tips on 1.2 centimeter long flower stalks and have a diameter of 4.5 to 5 centimeters. They include a top permanent, multi-chamber and spherical ovary , the large pen is very short, wide, fleshy scar disc is four achtlappig up. The female flowers also contain four bundles of small staminodes with antherodes. The main flowering period is from September to October.
The functionally male flowers or male trees are very rare, so fertilization usually takes place parthenocarp .
With a diameter of 3 to 8 centimeters, the round fruits and berries , about the size of a tomato, are usually ripe between November and December. They have four tough, permanent sepals on the lower side and leathery scar remains at the top. The skin is relatively thin, leathery, purple to dark purple-red, relatively smooth, bare and sometimes with yellowish-brown spots. The shell and the reddish mesocarp, the pericarp , are about 6 to 9 millimeters thick. The individual seeds sit in the fruit, each of which is covered by a whitish, slightly juicy, soft and sweet aril tissue (pulp, pulp). The individual seeds with the aril can be easily separated. The tannic pericarp contains a purple pigment that was used as a dye. The fruits usually contain four to six, rarely more, large seeds. The rounded to elliptical, orange-brownish, slightly furrowed seeds, without aril, are flattened and up to about 2 cm long and 1.2-1.3 cm wide. The seeds lose their ability to germinate within five days of being removed from the fruit.
The number of chromosomes is 2n = 96.
The mangosteen is native to the Malay Peninsula . In the last 150 years this species and its varieties have also been spread to other continents. Today this tree is cultivated practically all over the world in the tropics. Major growing countries are Indonesia , Thailand , Sri Lanka , Vietnam , Malaysia , the Philippines , Central America and Brazil . The mangosteen was also introduced in Australia.
Ingredients of the mangosteen fruit
The mangosteen or mangosteen fruit contains antioxidants in high concentrations. Some of the best known are the xanthones , stilbenes, tannins , catechins and polyphenols . Mangosteen has proven to be more effective than vitamin E in terms of antioxidant properties and contains a total of 12 vitamins.
The mangosteen fruit is a rich natural source of xanthones. Xanthones are partly broad spectrum antioxidants or so-called super antioxidants ; they can act as effective anti-inflammatories. Main support of the health effects is the xanthone and polyphenol alpha mangostin , which is mainly concentrated in the flesh of the mangosteen fruit.
The mangosteen is used as a fruit and in folk medicine.
Use as a fruit
The mangosteen is consumed as a tasty fruit; the skin is very tough and tastes bitter. The pulp has a pleasantly sour taste that ranges between grapes, pineapple, grapefruit and peach. A mangosteen fruit contains up to 5 g of fiber. A puree is usually made from the entire fruit - in a similar form, oranges and their peel are also processed into orange jam.
The kernels found in some fruits are actually inedible, but some people cook or roast them for consumption.
Folk medicine and health-related use
In folk medicine, the peel of the mangosteen fruit is particularly used. Teas that are made from the bowl are traditionally known. The reason for this long-handed practice is that the peel of the mangosteen fruit is one of the richest sources of bioactive polyphenols ( secondary plant substances ) in the form of so-called xanthones , which are said to have antioxidant properties.
Among other things, the consumer center in Berlin and the Federal Research Institute for Nutrition and Food in Karlsruhe point out that "Mangosteen is not a miracle plant, but rather comparable to tomatoes, carrots, [...]". Accordingly, the high prices for pure mangosteen juice and for mixtures with other fruit juices are at best justified by the long transport.
Traditional ethnic folk medicine
In traditional folk medicine in Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam, India and China, the medicinal properties of the mangosteen fruit (due to its richness in secondary plant substances such as xanthones , antioxidants , polyphenols and vital substances ) have been used for health for generations. The mangosteen fruit is used for antibiotic and anti- parasitic treatment of wounds, tuberculosis , malaria and other infections. Likewise, it has long been known in Asia that the mangosteen fruit has highly effective anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties and is used for rashes, eczema and various skin diseases. The traditional use of mangosteen is traditionally used for oral rot (inflammation of the oral mucous membrane), catarrh (inflammation of the nose, throat and throat), cystitis, intestinal problems and diarrhea.
In the Caribbean, a tea made from mangosteen is used as a tonic against fatigue and discomfort. Brazilians use a similar tea as a digestive aid. In the Philippines, a fruit extract is used to reduce fever. Mangosteen fruits that have been cut open there are also traditionally used for abdominal pain by rubbing them on the painful area.
In-vitro studies have shown the following effects of the natural xanthones in the mangosteen fruit: anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal , antiviral , anti-SCLC (lung cancer), anti-tumor, anti-ulcer, protective against liver damage, anti-rhinoviral and anti-allergy.
The xanthones of the mangosteen fruit are considered to be important natural antioxidants . The anti-inflammatory properties of the naturally occurring xanthones in the mangosteen plant are significant: a study showed that the xanthone derivative gamma-mangosteen is a potent COX inhibitor . The COX have a central function in the regulation of inflammatory processes (inflammation, pain, fever).
In the 1980s, an antimicrobial effect of the mangosteen xanthones was found. Antimicrobial research continued into the 1990s and 2000s. It has been shown that the xanthones in the mangosteen blocked both bacteria (including antibiotic- resistant staphylococci ) and viruses (such as HIV-1). In two other studies, researchers showed that the xanthones in the mangosteen prevented the growth of six different disease-causing fungi.
A study published in December 2011 investigated the effects of xanthones from the mangosteen fruit in chemopreventive cancer treatment . However, a reliable result could not be achieved.
A double-blind , placebo-controlled study published in August 2009 examined the effects of mangosteen on human immune function. It showed that the intake of a vitamin and mineral preparation containing mangosteen caused a significantly improved immunological defense reaction in the test subjects.
One serious incident has been reported in connection with mangosteen juice, which occurred in the form of excessive acidity in the blood ( lactic acidosis ) in a consumer after daily intake as a nutritional supplement. A causal connection could not be established.
Large-scale cultivation of the mangosteen only takes place between the northern and southern 20th parallel; the tree is extremely sensitive to the climate and does not tolerate temperatures below 4 ° C or above 38 ° C. All attempts to plant mangosteen trees beyond the 20th parallel have failed.
The first harvest can be made around seven to nine years after planting; the best harvests are achieved 10 to 20 years after planting. The average yield of a fully grown tree is around 500 fruits, but on particularly high-yielding specimens it can be up to 5000 fruits. Some trees bear fruit for up to 100 years. The mangosteen tree is one of the few trees that do not need pesticides in cultivation. The mangosteen must be harvested by hand; the fruits are harvested all year round.
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