Mine diver (Bundeswehr)
Mine diving company
The company badge of the mine diving company
|active||Listed 10/01/1964 to the present|
|Armed forces||armed forces|
|Branch of service||Mine divers|
|Location||Eckernförde , naval base|
The mine divers are part of the Minentaucherkompanie (MiTaKp), a special unit of the Bundeswehr at company level of the Navy . The specially trained mine divers (military divers) focus on maritime weapon handling, ordnance disposal and search and rescue missions (SAR). The unit is part of the sea battalion that was newly established on April 1, 2014 and is based in Eckernförde .
From 1957 to 1984 mine divers were used exclusively in German waters, mainly in the Baltic Sea and there mainly to clear sea mines from the war. They were also involved in the search for and recovery of wrecked ships, submarines and crashed aircraft . The most dangerous task of mine clearance divers consisted ordnance track down and recover that were sunk after the war in the Baltic Sea, some chemical warfare agents contained and therefore jeopardize the shipping and fishing to this day.
The clearing of freshly laid mines in the Suez Canal in autumn 1985 represented the first extraterritorial deployment of mine divers. German mine divers were deployed in this NATO mission on an international sea route where the clearing equipment ( Troika ) developed for the open sea could not be used . Numerous missions were then carried out worldwide, including in international waters, within the framework of the NATO Response Force and the German Task Force (EAV).
Until 1991 the company was an independent unit and then together with the combat swimmer company it formed the weapon diving group. In 2003 the special forces battalion emerged from the weapon diving group. As a result of the transformation, the Marine Specialized Forces (SEK M) were formed in 2003 . At that time the SEK M was divided into the combat swimmer company , the mine diving company, the boarding company and a training inspection as well as other support elements and was dissolved in spring 2014.
Your areas of application are:
- Search, classification and disposal or recovery of underwater weapons such as mines or explosive devices in the water
- Operating underwater drones
- Disposal of ordnance on water and on land, in particular removal of unconventional explosive devices and incendiary devices (Improvised Explosive Devices, IED)
- Rescue and recovery operations
Mine divers are highly qualified specialists who can be deployed on land or on board a surface ship. The mine diving company is stationed at the mine diving company in Eckernförde .
Recruitment and training
The mine divers are trained in the training center in Eckernförde. This unit belongs to the Seebataillon (SeeBtl), and this in turn belongs to the Operational Flotilla 1 . In addition to teaching the fundamentals of diving medicine and diving physics, the operational procedures and the continuous improvement of diving technology, the aim of the training is to determine the physical and psychological resilience of the candidates, to increase them and to push them to the limits of the same.
In order to qualify for training mine divers, the following requirements must be met:
- Examination of at least aptitude level 2 without restriction for D700 weapon divers
- Commitment as a temporary soldier for at least 4 years
- Completion of the basic training [independent of the TSK ]
- Passing the TUKV examination TA3 (diving submarine combat swimmer usability ) at the Naval Medical Institute of the Navy in Kronshagen
- Top level of fitness (physical fitness), which is checked in special tests before and during training.
- Willpower that makes the applicant resilient beyond the limits of reflexes and physical pain.
In addition to imparting knowledge of diving physics and medicine , which is far above the level of a sport or professional diver, knowledge of (any kind of) underwater ammunition, tactics and operational procedures is imparted. The largest part of the training consists of practical exercises, fitness training and the associated “sifting” of over 70% of the course participants in the first five weeks of pre-mine diving training.
(An example of training to become a MiTa boatman / officer, some modules can be shifted from one another depending on the planning.)
- Entry: general basic military training at a naval school, primarily the Parow naval technology school
- from the 13th week: Swimming diving course in the Navy's ship safety training center in Neustadt in Holstein
- From the 19th week: Pre-training for miners in the mine diving company training inspection in Eckernförde
- from the 24th week: mine diving training (as before)
- from the 36th week: Blasting helper course with divers (as before)
- from the 38th week: powerboat license (as before)
- from the 41st week: ship safety squad leader
- from week 42: NCO course 1 (MUS Plön)
- from week 46: Use as a mine diving mate on board a mine hunting boat or in the MiTaKp
- from the 25th month: NCO course 2 (MUS Plön)
- from 28th month: ship safety group leader
- from 29th month: Mine diving operations manager course in the training inspection of the SEK M
- from the 32nd month: blasting course (as before)
- From the 33rd month: Training to become a fireworker and course for the disposal of ordnance in marine ammunition
- from the 40th month: Ordnance disposal EOD - land mines and drop ammunition at the Center for Ordnance Disposal in Stetten akM
- From the 42nd month: Use as a mine diving boatman or officer on board of mine hunting boats, in the MiTaKp
Part of the training is the powerboat license as well as the training to become a "demolition helper of the Navy with diving assignment". This is followed by training to become a squad leader as part of the ship safety training.
In individual cases, members of the MiTaKp are also given the opportunity to participate in numerous special courses. Many longer-serving mine divers (eight or more years committed) are z. B. also qualified as a BCE driver , helmet diver (state certified diver), parachutist and / or lone fighter .
The training and operational planning was originally aimed at defending against conventional and "non-conventional" underwater weapons in an emergency in the context of a possible confrontation between NATO and the Eastern Bloc. Since 1985 the tasks and accordingly the training content have been modified. The training for the "removal of unconventional explosive devices and incendiary devices (IEDD)" still takes place in a "special course for the fulfillment of special missions".
Compressed air and mixed gas diving equipment, so-called rebreather , are used by mine divers . The maximum operating depth with the compressed air diving equipment, which is also used for recreational diving, is 50 meters. With the mixed gas device LAR VII (CCR / SCR), the depth in oxygen mode with circulation operation (CCR) is limited to 7 meters. For depths of up to 24 meters, the so-called NATO B mixture (60% oxygen, 40% nitrogen) is constantly supplied in semi-open mode (SCR).
Since 2002 the "FGT II" diving device has been replaced by a closed, electronically controlled mixed gas circuit diving device, the "Stealth EOD-M" from Divex. With this device, the oxygen partial pressure is kept constant or reduced via the mixing ratio according to the depth, so that a depth of 54 m can be reached with the diving device.
Apart from the mechanical and electronic special tools, equipment parts that belong to civil diving equipment are also used by mine divers , but only non-magnetic equipment is used in action.
For the implementation of a mine diving mission, it is necessary to ensure that the personnel (medical diving personnel, safety divers, etc.) and material requirements are in accordance with regulations. In addition, the 10 boats of the Frankenthal class , including the mine diver service boat Rottweil (as a replacement for the Mühlhausen, which was decommissioned in 2007 ) and the diving school boat Langeoog as a replacement for the Hansa in Eckernförde, have on-board pressure chambers for up to 6 people Divers can receive immediate care after accidents. The largest pressure chamber of the German Navy is located in Kiel, in which up to 12 people can simulate the pressure-specific effects of dives at the same time or, if necessary, treatment of an infiltrated, injured diver under pressure can be carried out.
- Motto of the mine divers: nec aspera terrent ( Those who do not fear the rough / adversity , banner of the Hanover Army 1617–1866)
- Badge of activity of mine divers: swordfish in front of an anchor tree vessel
- Number of active mine divers: target: 120, actual: 66 (see military report 2016) in the association of the SEKM, in addition approx. 10 active ones at various departments of the Bundeswehr ( naval command etc.)
- Previous missions: Various national and international missions on board mine hunters as part of mine defense in the North and Baltic Seas and in the Mediterranean, as a ordnance disposal team on land in contingents of the UN in Iraq, Kosovo, Uzbekistan, in Bosnia, Afghanistan and Lebanon, as well as missions in As part of administrative assistance for other German authorities (e.g. when searching for and recovering bodies, during the Oder flood or during SAR operations ) and a large number of annual exercises to maintain and improve one's own skills.
Also as part of the boarding team for the Atalanta and Sophia missions.
- Sören Sünkler: Die Spezialverband der Bundeswehr , Motorbuch, 2006, page 135 ff. ISBN 978-3-613-02592-9 .
- Rolf Abresch, Lothar Schulz: The soldier and his equipment , Report, 2002, page 86 ff. ISBN 978-3-932385-13-1 .
- official page
- Mine divers - the underwater specialists at treff.bundeswehr.de
- The mine diving company at bundesarchiv.de
- German Federal Navy: The Navy's “multitool” - sea battalion set up in Eckernförde Eckernförde, April 1, 2014