Muhādschirūn ( Arabic مهاجرون, DMG Muhāǧirūn 'emigrant'), as a participle -active derived from the verb hādschara /هاجر / hāǧara / 'to emigrate, to stay away from (one's own tribe)' are those Meccan Muslims who, in early Islam , emigrated from Mecca to Medina - then called Yathrib - either before or with Mohammed . This historically important event is called hijra .
The Koran and the so-called community order of Medina, which Mohammed concluded with the Medinan Ansar , some Jewish tribes and the Meccans, are the oldest historical sources in which the Meccan emigrants are mentioned.
In sura 8 verse 72 it says:
- Those who believe and have emigrated and made war with their property and in their own person for God's sake, and those who gave (them) admission and assistance, are friends of one another. But with those who believe and have not emigrated, you are not in a friendship relationship as long as they have not (also) emigrated.
In Sura 9 , 100 is the "first immigrants" is mentioned:
- Those who got ahead of (others in faith) and (thus) became the first, namely the emigrants (from Mecca) and the helpers (from Medina) ...
The Koran exegesis identifies these “first” among the emigrantsالمهاجرون الأولون / al-muhāǧirūn al-awwalūn from Mecca to Medina with those followers of Muhammad who participated in his earliest activities up to the year 627 or even earlier, before January 624 - when Muhammad had shifted the direction of prayer from Jerusalem to Mecca ( Kaaba ) Have been Muslims. With the "helpers from Medina" are meant the Ansār .
In the biographies of the Prophet 's Companions - in Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani , Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr u. a. - the first Muslims of Mecca, who received protection in the house of al-Arqam ibn Abī l-Arqam under the social pressure of the pagan Meccans, are equated with the "first Muslims" and with the Koranic term "as-sabiqun"السابقون / as-sābiqūn . According to her socially low status she describes Muhammad ibn Saʿd († 845), the author of the “class registers”, as “young people” or as “(socially) weak people” mustad'afun /مستضعفون / mustaḍʿafūn .
The Meccan followers of Muhammad were given preferential treatment over the Ansar; the distribution of the prey after the expulsion of Banu Nadir and the destruction of Banu Quraiza was carried out only under "poor emigrants" (see sura 59 , verse 8) The distribution of the allocations under the second calif Umar occurred "after priority in Islam and not according to noble descent ", d. H. after the early or later confession to Islam at the time of Muhammad.
Another group of emigrants are those Muslims who emigrated from Mecca to Abyssinia and only later joined the Muslim community in Medina.
Also the members of the Arab tribes who joined Mohammed in Medina and thus the "homage (for the purpose of) emigration" بيعة الهجرة / baiʿatu ʾl-hiǧra were already understood as emigrants at the time of Mohammed - in contrast to those members of Arab tribes who only paid "nomadic, Bedouin homage"البيعة العربية / al-baiʿatu ʾl-ʿarabiya . They had no right to be called emigrants and in this sense do not appear in the writings of Islamic historiography . The break with Medina after having paid "homage (for the purpose) of emigration" was, however, considered to be "waste (irtidad) from emigration". The “Bedouin homage”, on the other hand, was not associated with a move to Medina.
The emigration to Medina served to consolidate Muhammad's position socially and was therefore considered a socio-politically necessary measure, which is also expressed in the form of the revelation in the Koran. In sura 3 , verse 195 it says:
- Therefore I will redeem their bad deeds from those who have emigrated and driven from their homes for my sake and have suffered adversity, and who fought and were killed ...
After the victory over Mecca, the emigration to Medina naturally lost importance; in their place came jihad , the armed struggle against the infidels.
The early Kharijites called muhajir those who joined their camp (mu'askar) as supporters of the movement. In their opinion, it was no longer Medina, but the movement's military camp that was considered the "House of Emigration". dar al-hijra /دار الهجرة / dāru ʾl-hiǧra This ideology from the late 7th century is preserved in the summary: “The dogmatic teachings of the followers of Islam and the controversial teachings of the believers” from Abu l-Hasan al-Ash'ari († 935).
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- Marco Schöller (2000), pp. 34-35.
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- Watt (1953), pp. 101 ff .; Muranyi (1973), pp. 42-43.
- Watt in: The Encyclopaedia of Islam . New Edition. Brill, suffering. Vol. 7, p. 356.
- MJ Kister: Land Property and Jihād. In: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient (JESHO), 34 (1992), pp. 279-280.
- Dictionary of Islam , p. 519.
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