Type of operation

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Type of operation is a term used by the Bundeswehr and includes various military actions for the form of combat . Until 2007 the term type of battle was used for this.

In technical terminology, depending on the size of the troops, a group in the tactical sense and in a large group in the operational sense are differentiated into attack , defense and delay , which are fully implemented by each combat group in the terrain that is favorable for them, and only conditionally in terrain that is only partially suitable can be guided very limited in unfavorable terrain.

Today, the term type of operation also includes hunting combat , formerly a special combat act . However, this can only be carried out by the infantry, since an essential element of the armored troops are their combat vehicles, which cannot be used in this type of operation, and these combat troops are not trained for it.

The troop leader (from the battalion upwards) conducts the battle using the terrain in such a way that he can optimally fulfill his mission. Depending on the mission , balance of forces and terrain , the types of combat can change during the battle.

In addition to the types of combat, there are general tasks in action and special combat actions .

Below the tactical command level of a combat formation, the combat troop platoons lead the battle through the fire fight below the company level.


A characteristic of the attack is that its own forces actively move towards the enemy's location against their resistance and take enemy-occupied territory. For the attack, combat patrols are assigned to the attacking forces and axes of attack are ordered and, as a rule, one or two intermediate targets are ordered in addition to the target in order to divide the battle into phases and to coordinate the attacking units.

In terms of mission tactics, it is of particular importance not to remain passively in the target, but to keep the reins of the action in hand. In particular, powerful fighting are at least reconnaissance forces push forward to opportunities of coup-like seizure of a controlling key terrain or Geländeengstellen, such as bridges or Engen, or destruction rear enemy command posts and logistics facilities to use. The infantry carried out the attack in dismounted combat in shock troops .

In attack, defense and delay, the combat force is supported by combat support troops, in all types of operations by artillery fire and in defense by pioneers with mine barriers. In the attack, the pioneers make difficult areas passable, including waters by means of translation.

Historically, a special type of cavalry attack was with the so-called chok . A cavalry line ran towards the enemy lines with great force. The run-up to the chok in a full career only began about 80 meters from the opposing lines. The riders held their rapiers or sabers stretched out (display forward). The German cavalry carried out the chok with an inserted lance .


The aim of defense is to maintain your own territory against enemy attacks. The final success is achieved when the enemy has been crushed in or in front of one's own defensive area , that is, cannot continue his attack. The active smashing of enemies who have penetrated one's own defense area is carried out by means of pre-planned counter-attacks by the reserve or improvised counter-attacks by locally available forces.


Delay is a sequence of time-limited lines of defense of weaker own forces, which are defended for a predetermined time or according to the success of the enemy when attacking, and which wear out the enemy in order to give your own operations management time for further measures such as the organization of a defensive line and attacking enemy also to steer into terrain in which one's own operations management wants to bring about the decision. Delay is agile guided by fire and swift evasion. The enemy repeatedly runs into new lines of delay .

It is characteristic that one's own forces are inferior to the attacker and therefore have to fight very flexibly in order not to be confronted and destroyed. After the fire fight has commenced, they give up terrain under certain conditions or on command, and set themselves back again for a temporary defense, and let enemy forces again accumulate on their own troops for a temporary fight. The delay forces have the task of wearing off the enemy, that is, of weakening them. For this purpose, the enemy is dammed up in suitable places such as narrow streets and ambushed with fire . In order to slow down enemy action, the decelerating forces go over to temporary defense in favorable terrain, smash enemy reconnaissance forces and advance forces, force the main forces to develop and wear out the enemy. In order not to endanger their own combat strength , deceleration forces must avoid close links with the enemy and avoid them in good time.

The responsible troop leader orders several delay lines one after the other in order to divide the room in which the delay is to take place and to structure the delay battle. The avoidance of a new - backward - delay line takes place constantly fighting or in a train on the order of the commanding officer leading the operation.

The delay ends with the special combat action taking up the delay forces by one's own forces in the rear position area .


The surveillance serves to observe the terrain and secure it against enemy reconnaissance forces. The supervisory forces are usually as weak as possible in order to enable a clear focus of the own total forces elsewhere. If stronger enemy forces appear, the responsible troop leader must decide in good time whether the relevant area should be abandoned or whether one's own forces should be strengthened so that they can go over to delay or even defense.

Hunting fight

Hunting combat is an infantry operational procedure, which serves the fulfillment of general military tasks in use with the purpose of the enemy wear and tear as well as to smash and destroy weaker forces behind the enemy lines. The hunting fight aims to inflict maximum damage in the enemy-controlled terrain.

Your own forces can also be used in hunting combat in rearward areas against enemy special forces that are deployed in low strength, as well as against irregular forces ( partisans or guerrillas ) behind your own lines or in non-pacified areas.

The combat actions are used here

The hunting fight is trained in the infantry troops. In the army , training is to guide and instructor in special operations in the lone Tutorial 2 . The teams are trained in the troops.

See also

Individual evidence

  1. Army Service Regulations 100/900, Leadership Concepts , Bonn 2007