Raymund brother-in-law

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Raymund Schwager (born November 11, 1935 in Balterswil , Switzerland ; † February 27, 2004 in Innsbruck ) was a Swiss Catholic theologian and Jesuit .


Raymund Schwager was born the second of seven children into a Swiss farming family. After high school, he joined the Society of Jesus in 1955 . He first studied philosophy (1957–1960 in Pullach near Munich ), then theology (1963–1967 in Lyon-Fourvière, France). In between he worked as an educator at the Stella Matutina in Feldkirch , Austria . He was ordained a priest on July 31, 1966 and then completed his training with a theological doctorate at the University of Friborg in Switzerland (1967–1969). During these years he also spent some time in Spain in the footsteps of St. Ignatius of Loyola , who was the subject of his doctoral thesis. In this Schwager already understood the church's image of the founder of the order as "dramatic". From 1970 to 1977 Schwager was a member of the editorial team of 'Orientation' in Zurich and did a lot of lecturing. In 1977 he finally became professor for dogmatic and ecumenical theology at the theological faculty of the University of Innsbruck . He headed it twice (1985–1987; 1999–2003) as dean. Raymund Schwager was a founding member of the Colloquium on Violence and Religion (1991), its first President (1991–1995) and an honorary member of the Advisory Board for life. In 1998 he was awarded the Tyrolean State Prize for Science . He died unexpectedly on February 27, 2004.


Raymund Schwager's thinking was mainly shaped by three sources: 1) his Christian faith in the tradition and spirituality of St. Ignatius of Loyola ; 2) a way of reasoning which he called "dramatic" - a term that he adopted from Hans Urs von Balthasar , but which he gave new meaning in his "dramatic theology"; 3) the mimetic theory of René Girard and the friendship he had with its author. In his theology, Schwager took up controversial questions, such as the question of sacrifice or substitution and, above all, the question of violence in the biblical scriptures and religions in general, and worked on how the Christian image of God should be designed. His “Dramatic Theology” was mainly based on the assumption that the story of divine revelation as recorded in the biblical scriptures does not progress linearly. Revelation, therefore, is not like a theoretical treatise, but consists of a web of various independent acts - initiatives and responses - from various actors - divine and human. Therefore, the Bible is to be read like a drama that reproduces this dramatic interaction. Each act in this salvation drama gives each individual action, and thus the entire drama, a new meaning. Only looking back from the end is it possible to understand the overall meaning of the drama and its acts and to create a theoretical theological draft from it. Such a draft always remains related to the entirety of the drama and its acts; apart from it, it petrifies and loses its validity. On R. Schwager's list of important events, those of the interreligious dialogue and symbolic acts that support it were right at the top. He particularly valued the prayer meetings with other religious leaders that Pope John Paul II called to Assisi , the trips of this Pope and his prayers for forgiveness for the Church on the First Sunday of Lent in 2000. The acknowledgment of one's own guilt and the guilt of the community that one Scapegoating oneself without scapegoating others or the past was, according to Brother-in-law, a prerequisite for real and lasting peace.


  • Ignatius von Loyola's dramatic understanding of the church. Historical-pastoral theological study of the position of the church in the retreat and in the life of Ignatius. Benziger, Zurich 1970, ISBN 3-545-22060-5 (also dissertation at the University of Friborg ).
  • Do we need a scapegoat? Violence and Salvation in the Biblical Scriptures. Kösel, Munich 1978, ISBN 3-466-20179-9 ; 3rd edition: Kulturverlag, Thaur 1994, ISBN 3-85395-191-0 ( online ).
  • The wonderful exchange . On the history and interpretation of the doctrine of redemption. Kösel, Munich 1986, ISBN 3-466-20279-5 .
  • Jesus in the salvation drama. Draft of a biblical doctrine of redemption (= Innsbruck Theological Studies. Vol. 29). Tyrolia, Innsbruck 1990; 2nd edition 1996, ISBN 3-7022-1746-0 ( online ).
  • Escaped the hunter's net. How Jesus understood his life (= Herder library. Vol. 8812). Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1994, ISBN 3-451-08812-6 .
  • Original sin and salvation drama. In the context of evolution , genetic engineering and apocalyptic (= contributions to mimetic theory. Vol. 4). Lit, Münster 1997; 2nd, corrected edition 2004, ISBN 3-8258-3115-9 .
  • ed. with Józef Niewiadomski : Religion generates violence - objection! Innsbruck research project "Religion - Violence - Communication - World Order" (= contributions to mimetic theory. Vol. 15). Lit, Münster 2003, ISBN 3-8258-6764-1 .
  • Dogma and dramatic history. Christology in the context of Judaism, Islam and modern market culture (= Raymund Schwager Gesammelte Schriften. Vol. 5). Edited by Jozef Niewiadomski and Mathias Moosbrugger. Herder, Freiburg in Breisgau 2014, ISBN 978-3-451-34225-7 .
  • Correspondence with René Girard (= Raymund Schwager Gesammelte Schriften. Vol. 6). Edited by Nikolaus Wandinger and Karin Peter. Herder, Freiburg in Breisgau 2014, ISBN 978-3-451-34226-4 .
  • Salvation drama. Systematic and narrative approaches (= Raymund Schwager Gesammelte Schriften. Vol. 4). Edited by Józef Niewiadomski. Herder, Freiburg in Breisgau 2015, ISBN 978-3-451-34224-0 .
  • The wonderful exchange. On the history and interpretation of the doctrine of redemption (= Raymund Schwager Gesammelte Schriften. Vol. 3). Edited by Nikolaus Wandinger. Herder, Freiburg in Breisgau 2015, ISBN 978-3-451-34223-3 .


  • Mathias Moosbrugger: The rehabilitation of the victim. On the dialogue between René Girard and Raymund Schwager on the appropriateness of speech about sacrifice in a Christian context (= Innsbrucker Theologische Studien. Vol. 88). Tyrolia, Innsbruck 2014, ISBN 978-3-7022-3322-8 .
  • Mathias Moosbrugger, Józef Niewiadomski (Hrsg.): On the way to the re-evaluation of tradition. The theology of Raymund Schwager and his newly opened estate. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 2015, ISBN 978-3-451-34746-7 .
  • Józef Niewiadomski, Wolfgang Palaver (ed.): Dramatic doctrine of redemption. A symposium (= Innsbruck Theological Studies. Vol. 38). Tyrolia, Innsbruck 1992, ISBN 3-7022-1841-6 .
  • Józef Niewiadomski, Wolfgang Palaver (ed.): From the curse and blessing of the scapegoats. Raymund Schwager on his 60th birthday (= contributions to mimetic theory. Vol. 1). Kulturverlag, Thaur 1995, ISBN 3-8540-0003-0 .
  • Józef Niewiadomski (Ed.): Dramatic Theology in Conversation. Symposium / banquet for Raymund Schwager's 65th birthday (= contributions to mimetic theory. Vol. 14). Lit, Münster 2003, ISBN 3-8258-6701-3 .
  • Roman Siebenrock (ed.): Church as a universal sign. In memoriam Raymund Schwager SJ (= contributions to mimetic theory. Vol. 19). Lit, Münster 2005, ISBN 3-8258-8910-6 .
  • Nikolaus Wandinger: The doctrine of sin as the key to people. Impulse by K. Rahners and R. Schwagers on a heuristic of theological anthropology (= contributions to mimetic theory. Vol. 16). Lit, Münster 2003, ISBN 3-8258-7014-6 .
  • Nikolaus Wandinger:  SCHWAGER, Raymund. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 27, Bautz, Nordhausen 2007, ISBN 978-3-88309-393-2 , Sp. 1298-1335.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Tyrolean State Prize for Science - Prize Winners 1984 to 2014 ( Memento from October 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). Retrieved October 14, 2015.