The right computer science is an interdisciplinary science and is concerned as the study of the conditions, possibilities and consequences of computer science in the law with the interrelation of law and computer science.
Today, a general distinction is made between legal informatics in the narrower sense (i. E. S.) and information law (depending on the form also informatics law, information technology or IT law for short, etc.). Legal informatics i. e. S. includes the information theoretical aspects and is mainly assigned to computer science. It deals with the application of IT instruments and methods in law and ranges from supporting legal ancillary activities such as law firm administration systems or legal information systems to attempts at a more comprehensive automation of law such as decision support systems , expert systems or applications of artificial intelligence in law.
Information law or IT law, on the other hand, deals with the diverse legal issues arising from the use of the new information and communication technologies , such as those arising in data protection law , intellectual property law, etc., and can therefore be assigned to the legal sciences. The concept and theory formation and in particular the delimitation of legal informatics i. e. However, the right to information and information are still fuzzy and incomplete.
Legal informatics in German-speaking countries began with the early deliberations on administrative automation, which began to relax from the late 1950s on the question of the possible use of "calculating machines" in law and the state and thus from today's perspective with a sub-area of legal informatics. The first German-language scientific publication in this regard seems to be that of Karl Zeidler with the title On the Mechanization of Administration from 1959. Herbert Fiedler's early works also achieved great popularity, such as those on calculating machines as an aid to the application of the law from 1962 or Niklas Luhmann's habilitation thesis Law and Automation in Public Administration from 1966. As further important representatives of the early approaches to legal informatics are among many others in particular Wilhelm Steinmüller , Spiros Simitis , Robert Svoboda or Hans Peter Bull , and with regard to legal logic, especially Ulrich Klug , Lothar Philipps or Ota Weinberger .
The concept of legal informatics itself can most likely be traced back to the French lawyer Lucien Mehl , who proposed the use of calculating machines on law as early as 1958 under the concept of informatique juridique .
The attempt to form a theory and a concept
A stronger theoretical preoccupation with data processing in law and state did not take place until the beginning of the 1970s. Herbert Fiedler and Wilhelm Steinmüller in particular - the latter was responsible for the first German-language textbook on legal informatics published in 1970 - raised the claim to the formation of an independent discipline during this period. With his textbook, Wilhelm Steinmüller also coined the term legal informatics to denote this new discipline. Also Fritjof prison speaks of a new discipline, but as previously indicated they Spiros Simitis , Dieter Suhr or Adalbert Podlech as law cybernetics .
Wilhelm Steinmüller regards the mutual relationships between IT and law as an object of legal informatics and, from a system-theoretical position, defines it as "the doctrine of the prerequisites, possibilities and consequences of IT in law". In this way, Steinmüller introduced the information-theoretical aspects relating to the practical use of EDP in law (such as legal information systems, administrative automation, automated legal decision-making, support for legal planning and training, etc.) with the legal aspects that arise when using EDP in law , under the umbrella term of legal informatics as a problem science .
Herbert Fiedler prefers the term legal computer science, the starting point of which he locates in practical data processing and which he defines as “ the structural theory of data processing in law and the state ”. He thus methodically orientates legal computer science to the formal sciences (formal logic, mathematics), but does not regard computer science as a purely formal science and does not exclude a description in natural language. For the first time , Fiedler summarizes the legal issues arising from the new information technologies under the term information law - as they can be assigned to the dogmatics of law . In the 1990s at the latest, however, Fiedler gave up the idea of a uniform mathematical-structural method and pleaded for stronger interdisciplinary cooperation and, in this sense, for an " integrative discipline of legal informatics " with the integrated disciplines of law and computer science. By merging legal informatics in the narrower sense (the information theoretical part) and legal informatics in the broader sense (information law), law and computer science should no longer regard each other as auxiliary sciences, but rather work together synergistically and for the frequent division into "computer science for lawyers" and " Law for Computer Scientists ”.
Leo Reisinger, in turn, defined legal informatics from a system-theoretical point of view as the theory of the structure and function of the legal system with regard to the automation of data processing, Fritjof Haft and later also Elmar Bund regard legal informatics as the science of the application of computer science methods to information and decision-making structures in Legal system and in jurisprudence. Maximilian Herberger advocates a methodical separation and a consideration of legal informatics as applications of informatics instruments in law in the self-image of other hyphenated informatics ( business informatics , medical informatics , etc.). The same applies to Wolfgang Kilian , who clearly assigns legal informatics to applied computer science, defines it as an analysis and evaluation of the requirements, applications and consequences of information technology in law and emphasizes the necessary interdisciplinary and cross-border cooperation between lawyers, computer scientists and economists.
Legal informatics i. e. S. and the right to information
Although the content, methods and objectives of legal informatics remain somewhat unclear, legal informatics in German-speaking countries is today mostly described as an interdisciplinary science, based on Wilhelm Steinmüller ( see above ) , which deals with the mutual relationships between law and computer science. In addition, since the 1990s, the pair of terms , legal informatics and information law ( see above ) introduced by Herbert Fiedler , seems to be the most widely accepted.
Under the right computer science in the strict sense (i. E. P) is therefore understood today regularly the information-theoretic component of the right computer science, which in turn roughly in legal documentation and knowledge management, standard setting and norm application and implementation of law (including legal expert systems and applications of artificial intelligence in the legal ), Workplace support, and legal learning and training systems. However, research into the social, political and economic development of the information and knowledge society is often but not always related to legal informatics. e. S. slammed. Since legal informatics i. e. S. encounters insurmountable limits in the formalization of legal language , from today's perspective, in addition to the disciplines of law and computer science, the integration of the discipline of linguistics, which has so far been neglected in legal informatics, and in particular computational linguistics as an interface between linguistics and computer science , seems necessary.
But there is also fundamental disagreement about the content of information law in legal informatics in a broader sense. Depending on the focus, information technology law, EDP law , information technology law (IT law), information and communication technology law (ICT law), new media law, internet law (cyberlaw) etc. are also mentioned here. The various legal issues arising from the use of modern information and communication technology are regularly brought together under information law and its related terms , thus presenting itself as a so-called cross-sectional discipline that covers numerous areas of law such as data protection law , intellectual property law , telecommunications law , computer law. Criminal law, which includes e-commerce law, etc. While information law is viewed by some as an independent discipline alongside or above the traditional sub-disciplines, others dismiss it as an unsystematic legal potpourris. Thomas Hoeren, in turn, establishes the right to information on the key question of how, to whom, when and why exclusive rights to information are assigned and consequently focuses on intellectual property rights. Despite these inconsistencies, the right to information in legal informatics i. e. S. de facto outstripped the rank and is occasionally even referred to as the further development or the modern form of legal informatics. But legal informatics is also taking a back seat today in relation to administrative informatics.
Legal informatics - administrative informatics - e-government
Towards the end of the 1970s, the term administrative informatics was established in the German-speaking area for what Heino Kaack put it, “the science of information technology-based design of administrative actions ”. Administrative informatics is sometimes assigned to business informatics; correctly, it is probably a multidisciplinary research area in which business informatics, public management and legal informatics fulfill important interface functions between the fields of informatics, administrative science, politics, economics and law. After widespread use of the Internet from the end of the 1990s, a bachelor's degree in "Administrative Management / eGovernment " was offered for the first time in 2004 . The law for the promotion of electronic administration (EGovG) came into force mainly on August 1, 2013.
The current position of legal informatics i. e. S.
Legal informatics today shows very good progress in the areas of process automation, mass processes and (isolated) problem-specific applications. Due to her heightened awareness of the problem, she also has the potential to uncover inconsistencies, contradictions or unequal treatment in law. After the initially euphoric expectations of legal informatics and their ambitious projects to automate legal decision-making processes in the 1970s and 1980s, a certain disappointment and disenchantment set in at the beginning of the 1990s. If the formalization of general knowledge and natural language proves to be extremely problematic, this applies all the more to the formalization of the complex legal language and the structural legal knowledge behind it. The increasing complexity in law, open and vague legal terms, valuation decisions, the changeability and dynamics of language and law, the divergence between formal model and non-formal reality, and the formalization of comprehensive world knowledge in which legal knowledge is embedded, are particularly critical.
This, together with the fact that a uniform conceptual and related theory formation in a discipline of legal informatics has not yet succeeded, ultimately led to a certain lack of orientation in legal informatics. This could not least be due to the unwillingness to interdisciplinarity and the associated dispute as to whether the legal informatics discipline should be located in law or in informatics. As a result, legal informatics today, compared to business informatics, has a specialty and has to take a back seat to information law and administrative informatics .
As part of a review of the development of law in the Berlin Republic at the Max Planck Institute for European Legal History , Thomas Hoeren spoke of the “death of legal informatics” in 2017 and said that “the subject itself” is now “dead”.
The problem of the formation of terms and theories in legal informatics does not only exist in German-speaking countries. In contrast to other hyphenated informatics, the term Legal Informatics has not caught on in English and is hardly used in English-speaking countries. However, the term Legal Informatics is used for the English-language versions of other language facilities or institutions. The term "Computers and Law", which emerged in the 1960s and was later widely used, as used today, for example, by the renowned Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law NRCCL (Norwegian: Senter for rettsinformatikk ) at the University of Oslo, has similar pitfalls as that of the Legal informatics and has been replaced more and more by more modern terms that describe the respective research area more precisely. Today there is talk of Legal Aspects of Computing , IT Law, ICT Law, Cyberlaw, Internet Law, Artificial Intelligence and Law (short: AI and Law) and many other variants.
Legal informatics i. e. S.
- International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law ICAIL ( every two years)
- JURIX , The Foundation for Legal Knowledge Based Systems (annual)
- International Legal Informatics Symposium IRIS , University of Salzburg
- German Society for Law and Informatics (GI) e. V.
- German Society for computer science e. V., Department of Computer Science in Law and Public Administration (RVI)
- Vienna Center for Legal Informatics (WZRI)
- Scientific institutes and facilities (incomplete list)
- Bing: Computers and Law: Some Beginnings . In: it (Information Technology), 2/2007. Pp. 71-82.
- Bizer: Law + Informatics = Legal Informatics . (PDF) Thesis paper, March 2003.
- Bonin (Ed.): Administrative informatics - contours of a discipline . BI Wissenschaftsverlag, Mannheim et al. 1992, pp. 25-35.
- Bühnemann: Computer science. Legal informatics . In: Farny et al. (Ed.): Short dictionary of insurance HdV . VVW, Karlsruhe 1988, pp. 303-306.
- Federation: Introduction to legal informatics . Springer, Berlin et al. 1991.
- Eberle: Organization of automated data processing in public administration . In: Writings on Public Law , Volume 301, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1976.
- Council of Europe. Committee of Ministers .: Teaching, research, and training in the field of law and information technology: recommendation no. R (92) 15 adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 19 October 1992 and explanatory memorandum. Council of Europe Press, Strasbourg 1994, ISBN 978-92-871-2431-9 .
- Fiedler: Constructive and critical contributions in legal IT . In: Albert, Luhmann (Ed.): Yearbook of Legal Sociology and Legal Theory , Volume 2, Düsseldorf 1972, p. 365.
- Fiedler: Legal Informatics and Legal Tradition . In: Stratenwerth (ed.): Festschrift for Hans Welzel on his 70th birthday . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1974, pp. 167-184.
- Fiedler: On the second birth of legal informatics . DUD, 1993, pp. 603-605.
- Forgo, Holzweber, Reitbauer (Hrsg.): Information technology in law and administration. Beginnings and Effects of Computer Use in Austria . Linde, Vienna 2011.
- Lena Graewe: The emergence of legal informatics. Scientific historical and theoretical analysis of a cross-sectional discipline . Kovač, Hamburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-8300-5640-9 .
- Detention: Introduction to Legal Informatics . Alber, Freiburg [Breisgau] 1977.
- Detention: Electronic data processing in law: an overview . In: EDV und Recht , Volume 1, Schweitzer, Berlin 1970.
- Detention: Uses of cybernetic systems in law . Dissertation, Justus Liebig University of Giessen 1968.
- Herberger: Legal Informatics: Understanding of subject and research area . Proceedings of the International Legal Informatics Symposium 2005. Boorberg, Stuttgart et al. 2005, pp. 29-34.
- Hilgendorf: Information law as an independent discipline? Critical comments on some fundamental questions of legal informatics and information law . In: Taeger, Vassilaki (ed.): Legal informatics and information law in the field of tension between law, informatics and economics . Oldenburger Verlag für Wirtschaft, Informatik und Recht, Edewecht 2009, pp. 1–12.
- Hear: Script Internet Law . As of April 2014.
- Hoeren: As an introduction: Right to information . In: JuS , 2002, pp. 947-953.
- Hoeren, Bohne: Legal Informatics - From Mathematical Structure Theory to Integration Discipline . In: Traunmüller, Wimmer (ed.): Computer science in law and administration . Bonn 2010, pp. 22-36.
- Jahnel, Schramm, Staudegger: IT law . 2nd Edition. Springer, Vienna / New York 2003.
- Jandach: Legal expert systems . Springer, Berlin 1993.
- Kilian: Memorandum on legal informatics ( MS Word ; 114 kB), March 2003.
- Kilian: Why legal informatics? In: CR , 17 (2001) 2, pp. 132-135.
- Kloepfer: right to information . CH Beck, Munich 2002.
- Lenk: The state on the wire: Electronic government and the future of public administration - an introduction . edition sigma, Berlin 2004.
- Lenk: Administrative IT as an opportunity for modernization: strategies - models - experiences. Articles 1988-2003 . edition sigma, Berlin 2004.
- Liebwald: The development of legal informatics as reflected in the International Legal Informatics Symposium "IRIS" . In: Forgo et al. (Ed.): Information technology in law and administration: beginnings and effects of computer use in Austria . Linde, Vienna 2011, pp. 117–132.
- Lutz: history of business informatics. Origin and development of a scientific discipline . Springer 2011.
- Mehl: Automation in the Legal World . In: Proceedings of a Symposium on “Mechanization of Thought Processes”, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington 1958 , pp. 755-779.
- Podlech: Legal Cybernetics - A Legal Discipline of the Future . In: Erdsiek (Ed.): Juristen-Jahrbuch 1969/70 (Volume 10), p. 157.
- Reisinger: Legal informatics . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1977.
- Simitis: Legal Applications of Cybernetic Systems . Tubingen 1966.
- Sunday: Introduction to Internet Law . Linde, Vienna 2009.
- Wilhelm Steinmüller: IT and law. Introduction to legal informatics (= legal worksheets, JA special issues . Volume 6 ). Schweitzer, Berlin 1970, DNB 880108568 .
- Steinmüller: Subject, basic concepts and systematics of legal informatics: Approaches to future theory building . Schweitzer 1972.
- Suhr: As an introduction: Law and Cybernetics . In: JuS , 1968, p. 351.
- Taeger, Vassilaki (Ed.): Legal informatics and information law in the field of tension between law. Computer science and economics . Oldenburger Verlag für Wirtschaft, Informatik und Recht, Edewecht 2009, pp. 1–12.
- Traunmüller, Wimmer: From administrative IT to e-government . In: Traunmüller, Wimmer (Ed.): Computer Science in Law and Administration: Yesterday - Today - Tomorrow. Honor ribbon Prof. Dr. Dr. Herbert Fiedler on his eightieth birthday . GI LNI Vol. 5. Köllen Verlag, Bonn 2010, pp. 7-22.
- Hans Leo Weyers: Some cybernetics in private law . In: Fritz Baur et al. (Ed.): Functional change in private law institutions Festschrift f. Ludwig Raiser on his 70th birthday . Mohr, 1974.
- Winkler (Hrsg.): Legal theory and legal informatics: Requirements and possibilities of formal knowledge of the law . In: Research from State and Law , Volume 32, Springer, Vienna / New York 1975.
- Wolf: Solving legal cases with the help of computers? Opportunities in legal informatics that have not yet been used . In: Graul, Meurer (Hrsg.): Gedächtnisschrift für Dieter Meurer . De Gruyter, Berlin 2002, 665-686.
- JurPC - Internet journal for legal informatics and information law
- Research Map Legal Informatics and Information Law, European Research Center for Information Systems, University of Münster ( Memento from January 9, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- International Association for Artificial Intelligence and Law
- Stephen Wolfram : Computational Law, Symbolic Discourse and the AI Constitution , essay on the potential of symbolic discourse language for legal informatics and the processing and understanding possibilities through artificial intelligence, October 12, 2016.
- For an overview of the beginnings and effects of legal and administrative IT in Austria cf. esp. Nikolaus Forgó, Markus Holzweber, Nicolas Reitbauer (eds.): Information technology in law and administration. Beginnings and Effects of Computer Use in Austria . Linde, Vienna 2011, ISBN 978-3-7073-1844-9 .
- Lucien Mehl: Automation in the Legal World . In: National Physical Laboratory [Teddington] (Ed.): Mechanization of thought processes. Proceedings of a symposium held at the National Physical Laboratory on 24th, 25th, 26th and 27th November 1958 . Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London 1959, OCLC 1400722 , p. 755-779 .
- Detailed information on the history and theory formation from the beginnings to the 1980s: Lena Graewe: The emergence of legal informatics. Scientific historical and theoretical analysis of a cross-sectional discipline . Kovač, Hamburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-8300-5640-9 .
- Wilhelm Steinmüller: IT and law. Introduction to legal informatics (= legal worksheets, JA special issues . Volume 6 ). Schweitzer, Berlin 1970, DNB 880108568 .
- For an overview see Carl-Eugen Eberle: Organization of automated data processing in public administration (= publications on public law . Volume 301 ). Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1976, ISBN 3-428-03683-2 , chapter 1.
- Fritjof Haft: Electronic data processing in law. An overview (= IT and law . Volume 1 ). Schweitzer, Berlin 1970, DNB 456859098 . Cf. also Fritjof Haft: Usage of cybernetic systems in law . Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Giessen 1968, DNB 481543317 (dissertation).
- E.g. Spiros Simitis: Legal application possibilities of cybernetic systems . Mohr (Siebeck), Tübingen 1966, DNB 458954446 .
- Dieter Suhr: Introduction: Law and Cybernetics . In: Legal Training . Beck, 1968, ISSN 0022-6939 , pp. 351-353 .
- Adalbert Podlech: Legal Cybernetics - a legal discipline of the future . In: Gerhard Erdsiek (Hrsg.): Juristen-Jahrbuch . tape 10 (1969/1970) . Schmidt, ISSN 0449-4334 , OCLC 1782916 , p. 157 .
- Wilhelm Steinmüller: IT and law. Introduction to legal informatics (= legal worksheets, JA special issues . Volume 6 ). Schweitzer, Berlin 1970, DNB 880108568 , p. 30 .
- See in particular Wilhelm Steinmüller: Subject, Basic Concepts and Systematics of Legal Informatics. Approaches to future theory building . In: Data processing in law. DVR . tape 1 . Schweitzer, 1972, ISSN 0301-2980 , p. 113-148 .
- For an overview see in particular Thomas Hoeren, Michael Bohne: Rechtsinformatik - From the mathematical structure theory to the integration discipline . In: Roland Traunmüller, Maria A. Wimmer (Ed.): Computer science in law and administration . Society for Computer Science, Bonn 2010, ISBN 978-3-88579-424-0 , p. 23–36 ( uni-muenster.de [PDF; accessed on January 22, 2012]).
- Cf. in particular Herbert Fiedler: Legal Informatics and Legal Tradition . In: Günter Stratenwerth (Hrsg.): Festschrift for Hans Welzel for his 70th birthday . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1974, ISBN 3-11-004345-9 , p. 167–184 (176) ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Herbert Fiedler: Constructive and critical contributions in legal computer science . In: Hans Albert, Niklas Luhmann, Werner Maihofer, Ota Weinberger (eds.): Legal theory as a basic science of law (= yearbook of legal sociology and legal theory ). tape 2 . Bertelsmann University Press , Düsseldorf 1972, ISBN 3-571-09212-0 , p. 361 (367) .
- particular Herbert Fiedler: On the second birth of legal informatics. Sketch for the renewal of a legal informatics program . In: Data protection and data backup. DuD . tape 17 , no. 11 . Vieweg, 1993, ISSN 0343-5385 , p. 603-605 (605) .
- Leo Reisinger: Legal Informatics . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1977, ISBN 3-11-004582-6 , p. 42 f .
- Fritjof Haft: Introduction to legal informatics . Alber, Freiburg [Breisgau] 1977, ISBN 3-495-47355-6 , pp. 19th ff .
- Elmar Bund: Introduction to legal informatics . Springer, Berlin et al. 1991, ISBN 3-540-53192-0 , pp. 11 f ., doi : 10.1007 / 978-3-642-76103-4 .
- Maximilian Herberger: Legal Informatics. Notes on understanding the subject and research area . In: Erich Schweighofer (Ed.): Efficiency of e-solutions in state and society. Current issues in legal informatics . Proceedings of the 8th International Legal Informatics Symposium / IRIS 2005. Boorberg, Stuttgart et al. 2005, ISBN 3-415-03615-4 , pp. 29-34 .
- Wolfgang Kilian: Why legal informatics? In: Computer and Law. CR . tape 17 , no. 2 . Schmidt, 2001, ISSN 0179-1990 , OCLC 643618555 , p. 132-135 .
- See e.g. B. Bühnemann, IT, legal IT, in: Farny et al. (Ed.): Handwortbuch der Versicherung HdV, VVW Karlsruhe 1988, pp. 303-306 (304) or the research projects CORTE and LingLaw ( Memento of the original from October 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and still Not checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. .
- In this sense z. B. Jahnel / Schramm / Staudegger, Computer Science Law (2nd edition), Springer, Vienna / New York 2003; Kloepfer, Informationsrecht, CH Beck, Munich 2002; Sunday, Introduction to Internet Law, Linde, Vienna 2009; comprehensive Hilgendorf, information law as an independent discipline? Critical comments on some fundamental questions of legal informatics and information law, in Taeger / Vassilaki (ed.): Legal informatics and information law in the field of tension between law, computer science and economics; Oldenburg publishing house for business, IT and law; Edewecht 2009, pp. 1-12 (2).
- See e.g. B. Hilgendorf, Information law as an independent discipline? Critical comments on some fundamental questions of legal informatics and information law, in Taeger / Vassilaki (ed.): Legal informatics and information law in the field of tension between law, computer science and economics; Oldenburg publishing house for business, IT and law; Edewecht 2009, pp. 1-12 (2).
- Wolf, Solving Legal Cases Using Computers? Chances of legal informatics not used so far, in: Graul / Meurer (ed.): Gedächtnisschrift für Dieter Meurer, De Gruyter, Berlin 2002, 665–686.
- Hoeren, Script Internet Law , as of October 2011; Hoeren, Introduction: Informationsrecht, JuS 2002, pp. 947-953 (950).
- See especially Lena Graewe: The emergence of legal informatics. Scientific historical and theoretical analysis of a cross-sectional discipline . Kovač, Hamburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-8300-5640-9 .
- So z. B. Hoeren, Introduction: Informationsrecht, JuS 2002, pp. 947-953 (949 f.).
- See e.g. B. Liebwald, The development of legal informatics in the mirror of the International Legal Informatics Symposium "IRIS", in: Forgo et al. (Ed.): Information technology in law and administration: beginnings and effects of computer use in Austria, Linde, Vienna 2011, pp. 117–132.
- Kaack, Heino: Administrative informatics as application-specific informatics, in: Bonin (Ed.): Administrative informatics - contours of a discipline, BI Wissenschaftsverlag, Mannheim et al. 1992, pp. 25-35 (31).
- See also Lenk, Der Staat am Draht: Electronic Government and the Future of Public Administration - an Introduction or Lenk, Administrative IT as an Opportunity for Modernization: Strategies - Models - Experiences. Articles 1988–2003, both edition sigma, Berlin 2004.
- See in particular the entry by Wimmer on administrative informatics ( memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. in crank et al., encyclopedia of business informatics, online lexicon of the Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag.
- Traunmüller / Wimmer, From administrative informatics to e-government, in: Taunmüller / Wimmer (ed.): Informatics in law and administration: Yesterday - Today - Tomorrow. Honor ribbon Prof. Dr. Dr. Herbert Fiedler on his eightieth birthday, GI LNI Vol. 5, Köllen Verlag, Bonn 2010, pp. 7–22.
- See in particular Jandach, Juristische Expertensysteme, Springer, Berlin 1993; for an overview, see also Bing, Computers and Law: Some Beginnings, it (Information Technology) 2/2007, pp. 71-82.
- See in particular Lutz, History of Business Informatics, Origin and Development of a Scientific Discipline, Springer 2011.
- Jahnel, More than an “Orchid Compartment” ?! (PDF; 2.5 MB) jusclub 01/2005, p. 17.
- See e.g. B. Bizer, Law + Informatics = Legal Informatics (PDF)? Thesis paper March 2003; Kilian, Memorandum on Legal Informatics ( MS Word ; 114 kB), March 2003.
- Thomas Hoeren: From Judge Judy to the Beck blog: The jurisprudence of the Berlin Republic in media change . In: Thomas Duve, Stefan Ruppert (Hrsg.): Law in the Berlin Republic . Suhrkamp, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-518-29830-5 , pp. 212, 224, 226 (with a brief overview of the history of the subject in Germany).
- Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law ( English ) UiO University of Oslo. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
- Bing, Computers and Law: Some Beginnings, it (Information Technology) 2/2007, pp. 71–82, gives an overview of the beginnings and trends of legal informatics in Europe.