Rosa × centifolia , drawing: Koehler 1887
|known since||around 1700|
|List of rose varieties|
Since the beginning of rose breeding in the 18th century until today, over 30,000 rose varieties have emerged worldwide . In terms of horticulture, they are assigned to different classes of roses , which can be grouped together. The rose classes are not a class or any other taxon in the sense of biological systematics , the term is therefore not to be found in the systematics of the plant kingdom. Up to now there is no internationally binding regulation on the classification and consequently different classifications are common in different countries.
Another way of dividing roses into groups is based on the growth habit and use. So z. B. shrub roses, bed roses and climbing roses can be distinguished.
In the large group of wild roses , gardeners summarize all botanical rose species . Usually wild roses are genetically very variable and also cross species. This is why there are many subspecies, varieties and forms. Many wild roses are grown in gardens and parks and are the starting point for growing garden roses.
The garden roses are divided into two large groups: Old roses (also called "antique" or "historical roses") are classes of roses that were cultivated before 1867. Modern roses are classes of roses that have arisen since the introduction of the tea hybrids in 1867.
- Alba roses
- Bourbon roses
- China roses
- Damascus roses
- Gallica roses
- Noisette roses
- Portland roses
- Remontant roses
- Tea roses
- Centifolia , with its subgroup of moss roses
It is useful to divide the old roses into two groups (according to David Austin, Alte Rosen & Englische Rosen , Cologne 1993):
- Old European roses: Alba roses, Gallica roses, Damascena roses, centifolia and moss roses
- Old roses with the influence of China roses: China roses, Portland roses, Bourbon roses, Noisette roses, Remontant roses, tea roses
- Ground cover roses (today often referred to as "small shrub roses ")
- English roses , not officially recognized as a class (and romantic roses)
- Floribunda roses
- Musk roses (also known as "moschata hybrids")
- Polyantha roses
- Climbing roses
- Rambler roses
- Hybrid tea
- Miniature roses (also known as "dwarf roses ")
Floribunda roses and polyantha roses are also grouped together as the cluster- flowered roses .
Classification according to growth form and possible use
- Noble roses (stature height 60 to 100 cm)
- Bed roses, also: border roses (plant height 60 to 100 cm)
- Small shrub roses (stature height 50 to 120 cm)
- Shrub roses (up to 250 cm), shrub roses that bloom once and shrub roses that bloom more often
- Climbing roses (up to 10 m), here also: trunk roses and cascade roses, rambler roses
- Dwarf roses (stature height 30 to 50 cm), also: miniature roses
- Ground cover roses, diverse group, summarized according to intended use
- Heinrich Schultheis: Roses: the best kinds and varieties for the garden , Ulmer: Stuttgart 1996, page 120 ff, ISBN 3-8001-6601-1
- Klaus-Jürgen Strobel: Everything about roses , page 83, Stuttgart: Ulmer 2006,
- Peter Beales, Tommy Cairns, Walter Duncan: Rose Encyclopedia. The most important wild roses and over 4000 garden roses , Könemann in der Tandem Verlags-GmbH, 2005, ISBN 978-3-8290-1954-5