Black-throated shadow hummingbird
|Black-throated shadow hummingbird|
|Lawrence , 1858|
The black-throated shadow hummingbird ( Phaethornis atrimentalis ) or dwarf hummingbird is a species of bird from the hummingbird family (Trochilidae) that occurs in Colombia , Ecuador and Peru . The IUCN assesses the population as Least Concern .
The black-throated shadow hummingbird reaches a body length of about 8.0 to 9.0 cm. It is bronze-green on top with a reddish brown rump . The blackish cheeks are delimited by the yellow-brown to whitish upper eye and beard line. The majority of the underside is cinnamon to yellow-brown with extensive contrasting black lines on the throat. The wedged tail feathers are spotted white. It resembles the red dwarf shadow hummingbird ( Phaethornis ruber ) from which it differs mainly in the throat lines and the whitish under-tail-coverts. The male has a slightly more intensely colored throat and shorter wings than the female. The central control springs are rounded. Dark feathers that demarcate the cinnamon-colored breast look like a spot or even like a band are often found on the males.
Behavior and nutrition
The black-throated shadow hummingbird gets its nectar from flowering plants of the genera Costus , Aechmea , Palicourea , the genus Drymonia belonging to the Gesneria family , the genus Gurania and Pitcairnia belonging to the cucurbits . It also feeds on small arthropods .
The singing consists of high-pitched phrases that he repeats incessantly with no pause between the phrases. They utter these at a rate of one phrase every four to six seconds. A phrase contains some monotone monosyllabic notes with two more rhythmic notes that sound like tsi ... tsi ... tsii ... tsiitu . There is also a high-pitched psip that it utters in flight. At little leks he also gives a high-pitched psss-psss-psss-psss-ju .
Data on gonadal activity indicate that it breeds in Peru in July and November and in Ecuador in September. So far there is no data on nest building and incubation period.
distribution and habitat
The black-throated shadow hummingbird prefers the undergrowth of lowland rainforests, especially their edges, areas with secondary vegetation, transition zones to more open habitats, plantations and bog forests. It is mostly found in the lowlands, but in the Andes south of the Marañón Valley it occurs at altitudes of up to 1200 meters.
So far, two subspecies are known:
- Phaethornis atrimentalis atrimentalis Lawrence , 1858 is widespread in Colombia, Ecuador and northern Peru.
- Phaethornis atrimentalis riojae von Berlepsch , 1889 occurs in central Peru. This subspecies is significantly larger than the nominate form.
The migration behavior of the black-throated shadow hummingbird has not yet been researched. But it is assumed that he is a resident .
Etymology and history of research
The first description of the Black-throated hummingbirds shadow was made in 1858 by George Newbold Lawrence under the scientific name Phaethornis atrimentalis . The type specimen came from Ecuador. In 1827 William Swainson introduced the genus Phaethornis for the Eastern long-tailed shadow hummingbird ( Phaethornis superciliosus ( Linnaeus , 1766)). The term “Phaethornis” is derived from the Greek words “phaethōn Φαέθων ” for “the shining one, the shining one” and “órnis όρνις ” for “bird”. "Atrimentalis" is a Latin combination of "ater" for "black" and "mentum, menti" for "chin". »Riojae« refers to the province of Rioja in northern Peru, the area in which Gustav Garlepp (1862–1907) collected them.
- Christoph Hinkelmann , Peter Boesman in: Josep del Hoyo , Andrew Elliott, Jordi Sargatal , David Andrew Christie , Eduardo de Juana: Black-throated Hermit (Phaethornis atrimentalis) In: Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive . Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
- James A. Jobling: Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names . Christopher Helm, London 2010, ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4 .
- Robert Sterling Ridgely, Paul J. Greenfield: Birds of Ecuador Field Guide: Field Guide . tape 2 . Princeton University Press, Princeton 2001, ISBN 0-8014-8721-8 .
- George Newbold Lawrence: Descriptions of Seven New Species of Humming-Birds . In: Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York . tape 6 , 1858, pp. 258-264 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- William Swainson: A Synopsis of the Birds discovered in Mexico by W. Bullock, FLS and HS and Mr. William Bullock, jun. In: The Philosophical magazine: or Annals of chemistry, mathematics, astronomy, natural history and general science . tape 1 , no. 85 , 1827, pp. 433-442 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- Hans Hermann Carl Ludwig von Berlepsch: Description of two new Birds from Northern Peru . In: The Ibis (= 6 ). tape 1 , no. 2 , 1889, p. 181-182 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- Phaethornis atrimentalis inthe IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018.2. Listed by: BirdLife International, 2016. Retrieved February 19, 2019.
- BirdLife International: Species Factsheet - Black-throated Hermit ( Phaethornis atrimentalis ) . Retrieved February 19, 2019.
- Videos, photos and sound recordings of Black-throated Hermit (Phaethornis atrimentalis) in the Internet Bird Collection
- Black-throated shadow hummingbird ( Phaethornis atrimentalis ) at Avibase; accessed on February 19, 2019.
- Phaethornis atrimentalis in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). Retrieved on 2019-02-19.
- xeno-canto: Sound recordings - Black-throated shadow hummingbird ( Phaethornis atrimentalis )
- Black-throated shadow hummingbird (Phaethornis atrimentalis) in the Encyclopedia of Life . Retrieved February 19, 2019.
- Robert Sterling Ridgely et al. a. (2001), p. 248.
- Christoph Hinkelmann u. a.
- IOC World Bird List Hummingbirds
- George Newbold Lawrence, p. 260
- Hans Hermann Carl Ludwig von Berlepsch, p. 182
- William Swainson, p. 441.
- James A. Jobling, p. 301
- James A. Jobling, p. 59.