Spiny mushroom relatives
|Spiny mushroom relatives|
The family of the prickly layer mushroom relatives (Echinodontiaceae) includes non-leaf mushrooms from the order of the deaf mushrooms (Russulales), which are divided into two genera. Echinodontium forms console- or shell-shaped fruiting bodies and has a prickly hymenophore and Lauriela is a crusty mushroom. The partly parasitic, partly saprobiontic white rot fungi are mainly found in the northern hemisphere and here in North America and East Asia. In Europe the family is only represented by two species.
The representatives of the family have fruiting bodies with a smooth hymenium , or they are console mushrooms with a toothed or prickly hymenophore . The basidiospores are amyloid and the hyphae are dimitic or trimitic . The fungi break down their substrate via a white rot . The wood-pathogenic fungi of the genus Echinodontium produce core rot in their host. Another important feature are the thick-walled, encrusted cystids .
Ecology and diffusion
The family is predominantly found in the northern hemisphere and here in North America and East Asia. There are only two species in Europe. The taiga layer mushroom ( Laurilia sulcata ) is spread more or less all over Europe, while the very rare prickly layer mushroom Echinodontium ryvardenii occurs only in the Mediterranean area.
The representatives of the family are partly parasitic, partly saprbobiontic white rot fungi that attack both deciduous and coniferous trees, with most species growing on coniferous wood.
Some new sesquiterpenes have been isolated from the culture media of Echinodontium species. These are Illudalane and Protoilludane , which are derived from trans, trans- Farnesol . Numerous sesquiterpenes from mushrooms have pharmacologically interesting properties. Some have an antibiotic or cytostatic effect, which is why these substances are specifically investigated. In the search for new interesting compounds, four protoilludans (Echinocidin AD) were isolated from the culture supernatant of Echinodontium tsugicola . Protoilludans are polycyclic sesquiterpenes with a 5/6/4 ring structure. Echinolactone AD was isolated from the culture supernatant of Echinodontium japonicum , as well as the well-known Neoilludol, a stereoisomer of Echinocidin B. Echinocidin A, but especially Echinocidin B, stimulates the root growth of plants.
In 1961, the Dutch mycologist MA Donk created the Echinodontiaceae family. At first it only contained the type genus in which Donk placed three species. In 1964, Henry L. Gross revised the family in his monograph "The Echinodontiaceae" and expanded the family to include three more species, which now contained two resupinate to effusoreflex species, E. taxodii and E. sulcatum . In 1981 Walter Jülich separated the resupinate species from the genus Echinodontium and placed them in his new genus Laurilia . Recent molecular biological studies of phylogeny have shown that the Echinodontiaceae belong to the Russuloid community of descent. However, the exact delimitation of the taxon within the Täubling -like is still unclear and controversial.
E. and KH Larsson found that Echinodontium and Laurilia, together with Bondarzewia and Heterobasidion, form a community of descent and advocated placing the genera in the Bondarzewiaceae family . Their results contradict the results of S. Miller and his co-authors. In their family tree, Echinodontium , Laurilia and Heterobasidion form a community of descent, while Bondarzewia forms its own, independent lineage. Other mycologists, including M. Tabata and Binder, found that Echinodontium and Amylostereum are closely related sister genera.
Because of the phylogenetic relationship between amylostereum and echinodontium, in their opinion, M. Tabata and his co-workers considered it sensible to combine both genera in the Echinodontiaceae family. Indiez for a relationship are the encrusted, thick-walled cystids occurring in all three genera and the appearance of a dimitic hyphae.
- Echinodontiaceae Donk. In: In the Index Fungorum. Retrieved January 26, 2015 .
- Species names. In: Mycobank (Fungal Nomenclature and Species Databank) . International Mycological Association, accessed January 26, 2015 .
- PF. Cannon, PM. Kirk: Fungal Families of the World . CAB International, 2007, ISBN 978-0-85199-827-5 , pp. 127-8 ( books.google.com ).
- MA. Donk: Four new families of Hymenomycetes . In: Persoonia . tape 1 , no. 4 , 1961, pp. 405-407 ( cybertruffle.org ).
- K. Lorenzen, T. Anke: Basidiomycetes as a source for new bioactive natural products . In: Current Organic Chemistry . tape 2 , 1998, p. 329-364 .
- Y. Shiono, S. Suzuki, T. Murayama, M. Ikeda, Y. Abe, T. Sassa: Protoilludane sesquiterpenoids, echinocidins C and D produced by a decay causing fungal strain Echinodontium tsugicola . In: Journal of Nature Research B . 60, 2005, pp. 449–452 ( PDF , free full text).
- Shinsuke Suzuki, Tetsuya Murayama, Yoshihito Shiono: Illudalane sesquiterpenoids, echinolactones A and B, from a mycelial culture of Echinodontium japonicum . In: Phytochemistry . tape 66 , no. 19 , 2004, ISSN 0031-9422 , p. 2329-33 .
- Ellen Larsson & Karl-Henrik Larsson: Phylogenetic relationships of russuloid basidiomycetes with emphasis on aphyllophoralean taxa . In: Mycological Society of America (Ed.): Mycologia . tape 95 , no. 6 . Lawrence 2003, p. 1037-1065 ( mycologia.org ).
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- Karl-Henrik Larsson: Re-thinking the classification of corticioid fungi . In: Elsevier (Ed.): Mycological research . tape 111 , no. 9 , 2007, p. 1040-1063 .
- M. Tabata, TC. Harrington, W. Chen, A. Yasuhisa: Molecular phylogeny of species in the genera Amylostereum and Echinodontium . In: Mycoscience . tape 41 , no. 6 , 2000, pp. 585-93 ( online ).
- Manfred Binder, David S. Hibbett, Karl-Henrik Larsson, Ellen Larsson, Ewald Langer, Gitta Langer: The phylogenetic distribution of resupinate forms across the major clades of mushroom-forming fungi (Homobasidiomycetes) . In: Systematics and Biodiversity . tape 3 , no. 2 , 2005, p. 113-157 ( copace.clarku.edu [PDF]).