Copper yellow foot ( Chroogomphus rutilus )
The stand mushrooms (Basidiomycota) are a division of the fungi that form their Meio spores in basidia or spore stands. They include around 30,000 species. That is about 30% of all known mushroom species. In terms of tribal history, they are very likely the sister group of the Ascomycota, which are also known as sac fungi , and together with them form the taxon Dikarya .
Mushrooms spread as a mycelium consisting of microscopically fine, filamentous hyphae in a substrate , usually the ground or dead wood. The hyphae are divided into cells by transverse walls ( septa ). Each septum has a pore in the middle through which the neighboring cells are connected to one another and cytoplasm and organelles can pass through. In most species, the pores are barrel-shaped ( doliporus ) and covered on both sides by a parenthosome , which is formed from several layers of the endoplasmic reticulum . Each cell can contain one or two nuclei . The latter is due to the fact that mononuclear mycelia combine to form a network in which the ends of their hyphae fuse ( anastomosis ) and then the two nuclei do not fuse ( karyogamy ) , as is otherwise common in all living things after plasmogamy . Such a two-nucleus or dikaryophase in the development cycle is otherwise only known in the related tubular mushrooms, and in the case of the mushrooms it comes to the fore.
Fruiting bodies consisting of hyphae arise from the dikaryotic mycelium and protrude or protrude from the substrate as the well-known hats . The "flesh" of the hats is a pseudo-tissue ( plectenchyma ), which is structured completely differently than the tissue of plants and animals. On the underside of the hat, the swelling hyphae ends form the basidia , after which the mushrooms are also known as basidiomycota. In the basid there is karyogamy, i.e. the transition from the haploid to the diploid phase, and then meiosis , after which there are again four haploid nuclei. These then migrate into four processes of the basidia, which are then pinched off and develop into meiospores .
Forest-dwelling mushrooms form long, root-like mycelial strands, the rhizomorphs , inside which special vascular hyphae with a very large diameter run. These enable the effective transport of soluble substances over longer distances. With their help, species living on dead wood, such as the Hallimasch, can colonize other pieces of wood. As part of mycorrhiza, fungi use rhizomorphs to supply tree seedlings growing in the shade with sugar that they receive from other trees.
Ecology and importance
Around 150 species are poisonous to humans , the best known representatives come from the amanita genus . Other species are collected as edible mushrooms , and very few, such as mushrooms ( agaricus ), can also be grown.
The monophyletic stand mushrooms are grouped together with the hose fungi (Ascomycota) in the sub-kingdom Dikarya . The system of mushrooms has been subject to major changes in recent years. Hibbett and authors (2007) divide them into three groups:
- Subdivision Pucciniomycotina
- Ustilaginomycotina subdivision
- Class Tremellomycetes
- Class Dacrymycetes
- Order gelatinous - Dacrymycetales
- Class Agaricomycetes
- Subclass Agaricomycetidae
- Subclass Phallomycetidae
- not assigned to any subclass - incertae sedis
- Order ear lobe fungus - Auriculariales
- Order chanterelles - Cantharellales
- Order royal bark mushroom - Corticiales
- Order leafless - Gloeophyllales
- Order bristle disk-like - Hymenochaetales
- Order Stielporlingsigene - Polyporales
- Order deaf - Russulales
- Order wax crusty - Sebacinales
- Order Mushroom - Thelephorales
- Order Stachelsporrindenpilzverbindungen - Trechisporales
- not assigned to any subdivision - incertae sedis
- Julia Kruse: Fascinating plant mushrooms. Recognize and determine . Quelle & Meyer, Wiebelsheim 2019, ISBN 978-3-494-01780-8 .
- Ulf Stahl : Genetic regulation of fruiting body formation in higher Basidiomycetes. Cramer-Verlag: Vaduz 1976 (also Diss. Bochum 1975)
- Andreas Bresinsky, Christian Körner, Joachim W. Kadereit, Gunther Neuhaus: Strasburger - textbook of botany . 36th edition. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg 2008, ISBN 978-3-8274-1455-7 , p. 671 ff .
- Sina M. Adl, Alastair GB Simpson, Mark A. Farmer, Robert A. Andersen, O. Roger Anderson, John A. Barta, Samual S. Bowser, Guy Bragerolle, Robert A. Fensome, Suzanne Fredericq, Timothy Y. James, Sergei Karpov, Paul Kugrens, John Krug, Christopher E. Lane, Louise A. Lewis, Jean Lodge, Denis H. Lynn, David G. Mann, Richard M. McCourt, Leonel Mendoza, Øjvind Moestrup, Sharon E. Mozley-Standridge, Thomas A. Nerad, Carol A. Shearer, Alexey V. Smirnov, Frederick W. Spiegel, Max FJR Taylor: The New Higher Level Classification of Eukaryotes with Emphasis on the Taxonomy of Protists . In: The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology . tape 52 , no. 5 , 2005, p. 399-451 ( PDF; 390 KB ).
- David H. Jennings, Gernot Lysek: Fungal Biology: Understanding the Fungal Lifestyle . BIOS Scientific Publishers, Oxford 1996. pp. 25f.
- David S. Hibbett, Manfred Binder, Joseph F. Bischoff, Meredith Blackwell, Paul F. Cannon, Ove E. Eriksson, Sabine Huhndorf, Timothy James, Paul M. Kirk, Robert Lücking, H. Thorsten Lumbsch, François Lutzoni, P Brandon Matheny, David J. McLaughlin, Martha J. Powell, Scott Redhead, Conrad L. Schoch, Joseph W. Spatafora, Joost A. Stalpers, Rytas Vilgalys, M. Catherine Aime, André Aptroot, Robert Bauer, Dominik Begerow, Gerald L. Benny, Lisa A. Castlebury, Pedro W. Crous, Yu-Cheng Dai, Walter Gams, David M. Geiser, Gareth W. Griffith, Cécile Gueidan, David L. Hawksworth, Geir Hestmark, Kentaro Hosaka, Richard A. Humber , Kevin D. Hyde, Joseph E. Ironside, Urmas Kõljalg, Cletus P. Kurtzman, Karl-Henrik Larsson, Robert Lichtwardt, Joyce Longcore, Jolanta Miądlikowsk, Andrew Miller, Jean-Marc Moncalvo, Sharon Mozley-Standridge, Franz Oberwinkler, Erast Parmasto, Valérie Reeb, Jack D. Rogers, Claude Roux, Leif Ryvarden, José Paulo Sampaio, Arthur Schüßler, Junta Sugiyama, R. Greg Thorn, Leif Tibell, Wendy A. Untereiner, Christopher Walker, Zheng Wang, Alex Weir, Michael Weiss, Merlin M. White, Katarina Wink, Yi-Jian Yao, Ning Zhang: A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi . In: Mycological Research . tape 111 , no. 5 . British Mycological Society, 2007, p. 509-547 , doi : 10.1016 / j.mycres.2007.03.004 ( PDF; 1.01 MB ( memento of November 22, 2010 in the Internet Archive )). A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi ( Memento of the original from November 22, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- AFTOL classification project site. Overview page of the classification results of the project "Assembling the Fungal Tree of Life". August 1, 2007, accessed July 26, 2012 .