|Patterson , 1989, emend. Adl et al., 2005|
The group of stramenopiles (stramenopiles, also Chromista or Heterokonta ) consists of eukaryotic organisms that have two differently formed flagella . The group includes mostly photosynthetic organisms , including some of the most important photosynthetically active species on earth. Most species are single-celled, but the brown algae also include highly differentiated multicellular cells.
The stramenopiles - from Latin stramen (straw) and pilus (hair) - have mobile cells (swarmers), which usually have two different flagella: a front ciliated flagellum with hair-like three-part mastigonemata in two opposite rows, and usually also a rear dragged flagella , the is usually smooth. Four microtubules attach to the kinetosome root . Because of the different flagella, one also speaks of heterocontal flagella. In some modified groups, e.g. B. the diatoms , these flagellated swarmers are no longer formed.
The mitochondria have cristae.
The chloroplasts of the stramenopiles do not come from the endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria as in most other algae , but were obtained by secondary endosymbiosis from eukaryotes, probably red algae . This development step probably took place around 1.2 billion years ago.
The terms heterokonta and stramenopiles have been used by different authors to refer to groups of different sizes. Here the group in the sense of Adl u. a. Used in 2005.
- Reticulated slime molds (Labyrinthulomycetes)
- Egg fungi (Peronosporomycetes, formerly Oomycota)
- Golden brown algae (Chrysophyceae)
- Yellow-green algae (Xanthophyceae)
- Brown algae (Phaeophyceae)
- Diatoms (Bacillariophyta)
- Blastocystis is scourgeless, lives anaerobically. The mitochondria lack typical enzyme activities and cytochromes . They have two or more cell nuclei and can cause disease.
- Sina M. Adl, Alastair GB Simpson, Mark A. Farmer, Robert A. Andersen, O. Roger Anderson, John A. Barta, Samual S. Bowser, Guy Bragerolle, Robert A. Fensome, Suzanne Fredericq, Timothy Y. James, Sergei Karpov, Paul Kugrens, John Krug, Christopher E. Lane, Louise A. Lewis, Jean Lodge, Denis H. Lynn, David G. Mann, Richard M. McCourt, Leonel Mendoza, Øjvind Moestrup, Sharon E. Mozley-Standridge, Thomas A. Nerad, Carol A. Shearer, Alexey V. Smirnov, Frederick W. Spiegel, Max FJR Taylor: The New Higher Level Classification of Eukaryotes with Emphasis on the Taxonomy of Protists. The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 52 (5), 2005; Pages 399-451. doi : 10.1111 / j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x .
- Neil A. Campbell, Jane B. Reece: Biology . 8th edition, Pearson, 2009, ISBN 978-3-8273-7287-1 , pp. 791-797