from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Vasodilation (of lat. Vas , vascular 'and dilatatio ,' extension, dilatare , broad make ') refers to the expansion of the blood vessels . The opposite of vasodilation is vasoconstriction .


Vasodilation can be brought about both actively, for example when the vascular muscles relax , and passively, for example by increasing blood volume. The interaction of nerves and muscles in active vasodilation is known as vasomotor activity .

Vasodilation occurs primarily in response to changes in nitric oxide levels. The release of histamine , for example as part of an allergic reaction, dilates the peripheral blood vessels, recognizable by the reddening of the skin.

Most relaxation techniques ( e.g. autogenic training ) try to actively induce vasodilation. This is mainly responsible for the relaxation effect.


Vasodilatation, but also vasoconstriction of cerebral vessels, are the main causes of migraine headaches . Vasodilation is one of the mechanisms that work together in anaphylactic shock .

Vasodilation promotes angiogenesis .


As a vasodilator (plural: Vasodilatantia , vasodilators or vasodilators ) is referred to in the pharmacology of each vasodilatory medicament for the treatment of functional and organic diseases. The advancement takes place peripherally ( direct ) or centrally ( indirect ). A distinction is made between the predominantly venous dilators and the predominantly arterial dilators. Most vasodilators, however, have both venous and arterial vasoactivity at the same time , thus reducing preload and afterload . They lower the peripheral resistance by relaxing the smooth vascular muscles .

The cardiac output is the quotient of blood pressure and peripheral resistance. Because this peripheral resistance is in the denominator , vasodilators increase cardiac output, i.e. improve ventricular function and thus heart failure . Cardiac output is only reduced if a simultaneous decrease in blood pressure is overcompensatory and stronger than the intended decrease in resistance. For example, ACE inhibitors are used for cardioprotection. One speaks here of relieving therapy with vasodilators . Vasodilators can even be prescribed for aortic valve insufficiency .

Therapeutic vasodilation can increase blood flow to poorly perfused regions. Improving skin perfusion can be helpful, for example, with peripheral arterial occlusive disease . However , the effect is only minor in arteriosclerotic veins. Its therapeutic effect in cerebral circulation disorders (used as a nootropic ) is controversial. Nitrates cause vasodilation of the blood vessels and the arteries in the periphery ; as a side effect there is often a nitrate headache .

Angina pectoris , headache , drop in blood pressure, tachycardia and fluid retention are generally given as undesirable side effects of vasodilators . Relative contraindications are, for example, heart valve stenoses and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies .

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: vasodilation  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Duden: The Dictionary of Medical Terms , 4th Edition, Stuttgart, New York 1985, ISBN 3-411-02426-7 , ISBN 3-13-437804-3 , p. 710.
  2. ^ " Red List 2018 ", Rote Liste Service GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, ISBN 978-3-946057-30-7 , Chapter 17.B.5., Pp. 457 f.
  3. ^ Günter Thiele (ed.): "Handlexikon der Medizin", Volume 4 (SZ), Urban & Schwarzenberg , Munich, Vienna, Baltimore without year, p. 2572.
  4. ^ "Hexal Taschenlexikon Medizin", Urban & Fischer , 2nd edition, Munich, Jena 2000, ISBN 3-437-15010-3 , p. 815.
  5. Willibald Pschyrembel: "Clinical Dictionary" , 267th edition, Walter de Gruyter , Berlin, Boston 2017, ISBN 978-3-11-049497-6 , p. 1890.
  6. ^ Gudrun Späth: "Heart failure", Walter de Gruyter Verlag, Berlin, New York 1988, ISBN 3-11-011801-7 , p. 88.
  7. ^ Gerd Bönner, Karl-Heinz Rahn: "Prostacyclin und Hypertonie", 2nd edition, Springer-Verlag, 1989, ISBN 3-540-51333-7 , ISBN 0-387-51333-7 , p. 24.
  8. ^ " The MSD Manual of Diagnostics and Therapy", Urban & Fischer , 6th German edition, Munich, Jena 2000, ISBN 978-3-437-21750-0 , p. 2049.
  9. ^ Georg Sabin: "The cardiogenic shock", Wilhelm Kohlhammer Verlag , Stuttgart, Berlin, Cologne, Mainz 1984, ISBN 3-17-008618-9 , p. 27.
  10. Gerd Herold and colleagues: "Internal Medicine", 1997 edition, Cologne 1997, p. 158.
  11. Gerald Klose (Ed.): "Arteriosklerose", Springer-Verlag, 1989, ISBN 3-540-50831-7 , ISBN 0-387-50831-7 , p. 171.
  12. Walter Siegenthaler et al. (Ed.): "Textbook of internal medicine", Georg Thieme Verlag , 3rd edition, Stuttgart, New York 1992, ISBN 3-13-624303-X , p. 94.
  13. Horst Rieger (Ed.): "Praxis der Allgemeinmedizin", Urban & Schwarzenberg , Volume 20, Munich, Vienna, Baltimore 1993, ISBN 3-541-13171-3 , p. 77.
  14. ^ "Roche Lexicon Medicine", 5th edition, Urban & Fischer , Munich, Jena 2003, ISBN 3-437-15156-8 , p. 1917.
  15. ^ Gustav Kuschinsky , Heinz Lüllmann : "Kurzes Lehrbuch der Pharmakologie" , 9th edition, Georg Thieme Verlag , 1981, ISBN 3-13-368509-0 , p. 94.
  16. Heinz Heidrich: "Proof of therapeutic efficacy for nootropic and vasoactive substances", Springer-Verlag, 1985, ISBN 3-540-15448-5 .
  17. Hubert Mörl: "Vascular Diseases in Practice", 2nd edition, Edition Medicine, Basel 1984, ISBN 3-527-15096-X , p. 88 ff.
  18. Andreas Ruß: " Arzneimittel pocket 2017 ", Börm Bruckmeier Verlag, Grünwald 2016, ISBN 978-3-89862-780-1 , p. 47.