Adhémar Jean Claude Barré de Saint-Venant

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Adhémar Jean Claude Barré de Saint-Venant

Adhémar Jean Claude Barré de Saint-Venant (born August 23, 1797 in Villiers-en-Bière , Département Seine-et-Marne ; † January 6, 1886 in Saint-Ouen , Département Loir-et-Cher ) was a French engineer, Mathematician and physicist .

Barré de Saint-Venant studied at the École polytechnique from 1813 to 1816. He then worked as an engineer until 1845, first at the Office for Explosives Manufacture (Service de Poudre et Salpetre), then as a civil engineer for the road construction department. Around 1839 he also attended lectures at the Collège de France , among others with Joseph Liouville . As the successor to Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis, he taught mathematics at the École nationale des ponts et chaussées in Paris.

He worked mainly in the fields of mechanics , elasticity , plasticity theory , hydrostatics and hydrodynamics . In France he was one of the leading authorities on mechanics in his day. In 1843, Barré de Saint-Venant published a correct derivation of the Navier-Stokes equations , two years before George Gabriel Stokes did so. He expanded Navier's theory of beam bending (1864), treated the torsion of elastic cylinders, and investigated non-stationary flows in open channels. He also edited a French translation of Alfred Clebsch's theory of elasticity .

Saint-Venant introduced a vector calculus in France . Since he published it in 1845, a year after Hermann Grassmann , but claimed to have been using it since the 1830s, a priority dispute arose.

In 1868 he became a member of the Académie des Sciences in the mechanics section as the successor to Jean-Victor Poncelet . In 1884 he was elected a corresponding member of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences .

The principle of St. Venant and the St. Venant element are named after him. In addition, he formulated the Saint-Venant equations named after him, which can be used to calculate transient flow rates and water level positions.

Individual evidence

  1. Holger Krahnke: The members of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen 1751-2001 (= Treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen, Philological-Historical Class. Volume 3, Vol. 246 = Treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen, Mathematical-Physical Class. Episode 3, vol. 50). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2001, ISBN 3-525-82516-1 , p. 209.
  2. Detlef Aigner, Gerhard Bollrich: Handbuch der Hydraulik: für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft , January 2015, ISBN 978-3-410-21341-3 Online (accessed on April 10, 2016)


  • Karl-Eugen Kurrer : Accueil fait à la theory de la torsion de Saint-Venant dans la littérature technique allemande jusqu'en 1950. In: Construction Métallique. Vol. 39 (2002), no. 1, p. 5 f.
  • Karl-Eugen Kurrer: The History of the Theory of Structures. Searching for Equilibrium , Ernst & Sohn 2018, p. 541ff, p. 549f, 950f and p. 1056 (biography), ISBN 978-3-433-03229-9 .

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