Work preparation (including job preparation short AV called in Switzerland AVOR usual, generally also production planning and control ) includes internal measures to prepare for the production required of products. So it forms the link between the construction and the actual production and assembly . In the GDR the term technological production preparation was used for this . Work preparation is often divided into:
- The work planning or production planning : This includes all planning measures once occur to ensure the efficient production, including resource planning and design. It defines what , how and with what should be manufactured. It is further subdivided into
- The work control or production control : It deals with the repeatedly occurring tasks and is responsible for all measures to order processing, for which the appropriate conditions have been created by the work plan. It defines who , when , how much and where should be manufactured. The work control is thus identical to the production planning and control .
Work preparation is often referred to as the position or department whose area of responsibility is work preparation.
Work planning includes all planning tasks that occur once. It is also known as production planning and defines what, how and with what is to be produced. According to REFA , it is further subdivided into workflow planning and work system planning . The former determines, among other things, the order in which products are to be assembled or manufactured, while the latter deals with the planning of work systems . This can range from entire factories ( factory planning ) to individual workplaces . Work system planning has a rather long-term planning horizon, while work flow planning has a rather short-term horizon.
The following sub-areas are mentioned in the specialist literature:
- Advice on construction, especially in the context of simultaneous engineering .
- Creation and management of parts lists for production and assembly
- Determination of the raw parts . This can be semi-finished products such as sheet metal, rods or bars, or prefabricated pieces are processed further. This includes castings and forgings.
- The order in which individual work processes should be carried out. For example, the sequence of the individual assembly steps or between which steps a component is to be subjected to heat treatment (e.g. hardening or soft annealing)
- The selection of the equipment, especially the tools and machines , as well as the production aids
- Determination of the position in which individual components are to be clamped during processing.
- The test planning
- Development of required special tools or devices
- The creation of CNC programs for machine tools
- Cost planning and calculation . This also includes a comparison of several possible manufacturing processes with regard to unit costs .
- Time planning: Determination of the standard times, i.e. the planned processing times.
Work system planning
Work system planning encompasses the more long-term planning activities. The following areas are mentioned in the specialist literature:
- Production equipment planning: Determining the required machine requirements and planning the arrangement of individual machines.
- Storage - and transport planning: This includes determining which types of bearings to be used, what and how much should be stored and how the transport routes should look like. This also includes the procurement of the required storage technology and conveyor systems .
- Personnel planning: This includes in particular the definition of the necessary personnel capacities and the qualifications of the personnel.
- Area and location planning : Determination of the company location , the general development plan as part of the factory planning or the layout planning that defines the locations of operating resources within buildings.
- Investment calculation
- Workplace design : This includes the design according to ergonomic guidelines and checking whether the workplaces also comply with the guidelines for occupational safety .
- Planning of organizational structures
The main tasks of work control include:
- Material disposition and provision ,
- Schedule and capacity planning , as well as the
- Production control or workshop control .
The basis for the execution of the order are the work processes and standard times specified in the work plans . Other important data are the capacities of employees, machines and equipment that are available in the current situation, i. H. the number of available working hours in the future periods.
Work preparation in practice
The temporal scope of the above tasks, depending on the company or production type and production type very different. The scope of work planning activities (work process planning, standard time calculation, etc.) is often predominant in companies that do single and small batch production . In series production, work control is often decisive. In companies with mass production , special systems are mostly used for production. The main focus here is on the development, construction and constant optimization of manufacturing equipment, i.e. H. in the field of factory planning. The production of a wide variety of products in series or mass production (e.g. automotive industry) is also usually associated with great effort for material disposition.
- H.-P. Wiendahl: Business organization for engineers. Hanser Verlag, Munich 2010, p. 195 ff.
- W. Eversheim: Organization in production technology. Volume 3: Work preparation. 3. Edition. VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf 1997, ISBN 3-18-400840-1 , p. 8.
- W. Eversheim: Organization in production technology. Volume 3: Work preparation. 3. Edition. VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf 1997, ISBN 3-18-400840-1 , pp. 11-13.
- W. Eversheim: Organization in production technology. VDI publishing house, Düsseldorf
- Hans-Peter Wiendahl: Business organization for engineers . 7th edition. Hanser, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-446-41878-3 .
- Wilhelm Danglmeier: Production planning . Springer, 1999, ISBN 3-540-65518-2 .