Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll

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Allan Ramsay : Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll, oil on canvas, 1744

Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll , better known as Archibald Campbell, 1st Earl of Ilay (also Islay) KT KG , PC (born June 1, 1682 in Petersham , Surrey , † April 15, 1761 in London ) was a Scottish Aristocrat , judge , politician and soldier .


Archibald Campbell was a son of Archibald Campbell, 10th Earl of Argyll (1658-1703) and his wife Lady Elizabeth Tollemache (1659-1735). His father was raised to the Duke of Argyll in 1701 . He followed his brother, John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll , in 1743 - shortly before the Jacobite Revolt (1745) - as 3rd Duke of Argyll and head of the Campbell clan .

After a short military career, Archibald Campbell went into politics and became one of the commissioners for the Act of Union 1707 in 1706 . On October 19, 1706 he was given the hereditary Scottish nobility titles Earl of Ilay , as well as Lord Oransay, Dunoon and Arase . He was seriously injured in the Battle of Sherriffmuir (1715). 1707 he was elected to one of 16 representatives of the Peers of Scotland ( Representative Peer ) in the new British House of Lords . During the tenures of Sir Robert Walpole (1721-1742), Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington (1742-1743) and Henry Pelham (1743-1754) he ruled, on the one hand through the power of the Campbells, on the other hand with the support of Government, politics in Scotland.

John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute

Campbell was one of the founders of the Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS), which was established by royal decree in 1727, and served as the bank's first governor. His portrait - based on a painting by Allan Ramsay - has appeared on the front (with the description Lord Ilay, First Governor ) and as a watermark on all Royal Bank of Scotland banknotes since 1987 .

Archibald Campbell rebuilt the ancestral castle of the Campbells Inveraray Castle and is considered the founder of the place Inveraray . The Duke was an avid botanist and had a large number of exotic plants and trees imported. Horace Walpole even nicknamed him Treemonger . After his death, his nephew John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (1713–1792) inherited his large garden; this was the basis of the later famous Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew . They were significantly expanded by Princess Augusta von Sachsen-Gotha -Altenburg, widow of Friedrich Ludwig , the Prince of Wales . In his honor, The Duke of Argyll's Tea Tree ( common wolfberry ), an imported shrub, was named after him.

Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll, died without legitimate descendants, the Duketitel passed to his cousin John Campbell (1693-1770).

Name in different phases of life

  • 1682–1701 Hon. Archibald Campbell
  • 1701–1706 Lord Archibald Campbell
  • 1706-1743 Archibald Campbell, 1st Earl of Ilay
  • 1743–1761 Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll

Offices and Awards

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll in the Notable Names Database (English)
predecessor Office successor
John Campbell Duke of Argyll
John Campbell
New title created Earl of Ilay
Title expired