The Ars Goetia , sometimes just called Die Goetia , is the first part of a grimoire from the 17th century , the Lemegeton Clavicula Salomonis or Key of Solomon . Much of the text appeared earlier, including material from the 14th century and earlier.
The Ars Goetia contains descriptions of the 72 demons that King Solomon summoned and is said to have locked up in a bronze vessel, which is closed with magical symbols , and who are said to have been obliged to work for him. She gives instructions on how to make a similar bronze vessel and how to use the correct formulas to summon these demons. The procedure described is complex and detailed. The word "howl" in the title refers to the wizard's incantations. The Ars Goetia differs from other Goetic texts in that the evoked entities are forced into obedience instead of being asked for favor.
The Ars Goetia assigns each member of the diabolical hierarchy a rank and title of nobility and gives the demons "personal signs" or seals . The entities named include Semitic gods and demons and those of several European pre-Christian religions. But many are also unknown and invented. There is also no indication of an expressly female entity.
The list of entities in the Ars Goetia corresponds (to a high but different degree, often depending on the edition) to those in the steganography of Trithemius , around 1500 , and De praestigiis daemonum by Johann Weyer (Wierus) , 1563 .
A revised English edition of the Ars Goetia was published in 1904 by the occultist Aleister Crowley . He used the "Preparatory Invocation" of the book in a modified form in one of the more important rituals of his Magick , this modified form of the ritual he called " Liber Samekh ".
The following names of the demons are spelled differently in different existing copies of the Ars Goetia , as is customary in sources from this period.
- Agares (Aguares): He rules over 31 legions. He is a fallen angel , Duke of Heavenly Angels and is mostly described as a good spirit. He bestows titles and dignities, makes the earth spirits dance and is supposed to teach all languages. However, opponents of his protégés should be led astray and hunted down by him. Sometimes he is also supposed to challenge traitors. Others also want to see him as a demon of courage, still others describe him as the master of jealousy, hell , passion and lust. He is described as riding a crocodile with a sparrowhawk on his fist.
- Vassago: The third spirit is a powerful prince, of the same nature as Agares. He is also described as a good spirit. Its job is to announce things of the past and future and to uncover everything that has been lost.
- Gamigin or Samigina: He is a great marquis and rules over 30 legions of infernal spirits. He appears in the form of a small horse or donkey. He speaks in a hoarse voice and his office is to teach all sciences and to deliver news of dead souls who died in the south.
- Marbas (Barbas): the Great President of Hell, rules 36 legions of demons. He answers hidden and secret things, causes and cures diseases, teaches mechanical arts, and transforms people into other forms. He is depicted as a large lion.
- Valefar or Valefor: He is a duke and rules 10 legions of spirits. His shape is that of a lion with a donkey's head. His office is to give guardian spirits to those who call him. He tries those whom he trusts.
- Aamon : one of Astoroth's assistants . He has knowledge of the past and the future that he passes on to those who make a pact with Satan. According to some authors, 40 legions of demons are under his command. There is no generally valid representation of it. Sometimes he is depicted as an owl-headed human, sometimes as a human with a wolf's head and a snake's tail. Demonologists associate him with the Egyptian god Ammon or the god Ba'al Hammon of the Carthaginians .
- Barbatos: Duke over 30 legions of spirits. He appears when the sun is in the constellation Sagittarius , usually he has four kings with him and a crowd of entourage and musicians appear ahead of them. He gives you the gift of understanding animals. He shows hidden treasures and knows everything that is past and coming. He also appeases those in power and reconciles friends. It belongs to the order of virtues.
- Paimon : He is a king who is very devoted to Lucifer and appears in the form of a man on a dromedary. He speaks in a powerful and roaring voice. When he appears, the instruments of his subordinates can be heard. He can teach all sciences and he reveals secrets. He knows the answers to questions like “What is spirit?” And appears in the West with 200 legions. If he is to obey, he must be offered a sacrifice.
- Glasya labolas
- Asmodai ( Asmodis )
- Furfur (Furtur): He rules over 29 legions of demons. He appears as a kind of deer, has angel wings and two hands instead of front legs. He is a liar unless he is forced to enter a magical triangle, then he answers all questions truthfully with a hoarse voice. He creates storms, thunderstorms, thunder, lightning and explosions, and teaches in secret and divine things.
- Malphas : He commands over 40 legions. He appears in the form of a crow and can read the minds of his opponents.
- Vepar: He rules 29 legions. He appears in the form of a mermaid; his area is the sea. At the command of a magician, he creates storms. Wounds caused by him lead to death within three days, so that worms arise in them, but at the request of the master, the wounds heal immediately.
- Allocer ( Alocer , Alocas, Allocen, Alloces, Alloien): He is the Grand Duke of the Underworld and commands 36 legions of infernal beings and is supposed to teach the secrets of astronomy, general sciences and the liberal arts. He allegedly appears in the form of a knight, with lion-like facial features and glowing eyes.
- Caim: He commands 30 legions. First he appears as a thrush, then he takes the form of a man with a sword. He teaches people to understand the voices of birds, cattle, dogs and other animals and truthfully answers all questions asked.
- Amy (Avnas): He commands 36 legions of demonic beings. According to his rank, he is the President of Hell and supposedly appears as a mighty, blazing flame. Whoever conjures it up will impart knowledge of astrology, science and secrets about the human soul.
- Andras : He commands 30 legions of demonic beings. He is a hellish Grand Duke and Marquis and embodies the imbalance, the quarrel and the disharmony. He should teach his followers to kill. He is often depicted as an angel riding a wolf with the head of a tawny owl or raven.
- Andrealphus (Andrephalus): He is a hellish marquis and leads 30 legions of demonic spirits. He should show himself in the shape of a "noise-making" peacock. Whoever conjures it, should be able to impart knowledge about geometry, measuring art and astronomy and be able to transform people into birds. The time of day assigned to it is night, the assigned metal: silver, and its planet: Luna (the moon).
- Amducias (Amduscias, Amdusias): Grand Duke of Hell or, for some, also: of Hades . He is also a spirit of musical instruments, Weyer (Wierus) describes him as a demon of music. He is said to appear as a unicorn and command 29 legions of demonic spirits. It is said that if he were conjured up, he would give concerts from the invisible. He should also provide good, subservient spirits. The trees are said to bow at the sound of Amducias' voice.
- Dantalion: a Grand Duke of Hell who has 36 legions of demons under his command. He teaches all arts and sciences and also explains the secret advice given by all that he knows the thoughts of all people and can change them as he wishes. He can also cause love and show the likeness of each person, show the same thing through a vision and make them be in any part of the world.
- Andromalius: He is said to rule over 36 legions of lesser demons. He is one of the few demons who appear in human form; He is represented here as a man holding a snake in his hand. It is said of him that he punishes thieves and wrongdoers, brings back stolen property and, moreover, finds hidden treasures.
- The Necronomicon / The Goetia: The smaller key Salomonis , Verlag Richard Schikowski, Berlin 1980, ISBN 3-87702-041-0
- Thomas Karlsson : Kabbalah, Qliphoth and the Goetic Magic. Red Dragon Edition; 3rd edition (2010)