Mountain savory ( Satureja montana )
The savory species are biennial or perennial herbaceous plants or dwarf shrubs . The stems are mostly upright. The leaves are linear to narrow-lanceolate, the leaf margin has entire margins or has shallow teeth. Usually the leaves are not differentiated into stem and bracts .
The flowers are in loose to dense, but then arm-flowered partial inflorescences. The hermaphrodite flowers are zygomorphic and five-fold with a double flower envelope . The calyx is tubular to bell-shaped, slightly indistinct 10- (rarely up to 13-) annoying and has five almost identical teeth, rarely unequal. The calyx throat is usually hairy. The crown is two-lipped with a straight corolla tube. The color ranges from purple to reddish to whitish. The upper lip is flat and entire or marginalized. The lower lip consists of three lobes, which are usually rounded. Of the four fertile stamens , two are longer and two are shorter. They are more or less against the upper lip and are curved. Like the stylus , they are shorter or just a little longer than the upper lip. The branches of the style are approximately the same length.
The partial fruits are egg-shaped and slightly hairy.
Systematics and distribution
Since there have been molecular genetic research methods, many species of the genus Satureja have been placed in other genera, for example Micromeria and Clinopodium . The species of the tropical mountains no longer belong to the genus Satureja .
The genus Satureja thrives mainly from the Mediterranean to the Caucasus and in the temperate areas of Eurasia. About twelve species occur in Europe . No species is native to Central Europe.
There are around 38 species of Satureja :
- Satureja adamovicii Šilić : The home is the northwestern Balkan peninsula .
- Satureja aintabensis P.H.Davis : The home is southern Turkey .
- Satureja amani P.H.Davis : The home is southern Turkey.
- Satureja atropatana Bunge : The home is northwestern Iran .
- Satureja avromanica Maroofi : The homeland is Iran.
- Satureja bachtiarica Bunge : The homeland is western and southern Iran.
- Satureja boissieri Hausskn. ex Boiss. : The distribution area extends from eastern Turkey to northern Iran.
- Satureja bzybica Voronow : The home is Transcaucasia .
- Satureja × caroli-paui G.López (= Satureja innota × Satureja montana )
- Satureja cilicica P.H.Davis : The home is southern Turkey.
- Satureja coerulea Janka : The distribution area extends from eastern Romania to northwestern Turkey.
- Satureja cuneifolia Ten. : The distribution area extends from southern Spain to south-east Europe and western Iraq.
- Satureja × delpozoi Sánchez-Gómez, JFJiménez & R.Morales (= Satureja cuneifolis × Satureja intricata )
- Satureja douglasii (Benth.) Briq. (is also placed in the genus Micromeria )
- Satureja edmondii Briq. : The homeland is western Iran.
- Satureja × exspectata G.López (= Satureja intricata × Satureja montana )
- Satureja fukarekii Šilić : Home is the northwestern Balkan Peninsula.
- Satureja hellenica Halácsy : The home is Greece.
- Summer savory ( Satureja hortensis L. ): It is widespread from Southeastern Europe to the Altai Mountains.
- Satureja horvatii Šilić : The home is the Balkan Peninsula.
- Satureja icarica P.H.Davis : It occurs on the islands of the Aegean Sea .
- Satureja innota (Pau) Font Quer : It occurs only in eastern Spain.
- Satureja intermedia, C.A. Mey. : The distribution area extends from the southeastern Caucasus to northern Iran.
- Satureja intricata Lange : The home is Spain.
- Satureja isophylla Rech. F. : The home is northern Iran.
- Satureja kallarica Jamzad : The homeland is Iran.
- Satureja kermanshahensis Jamzad : The homeland is Iran.
- Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad : The homeland is Iran.
- Satureja kitaibelii Wierzb. ex Heuff. : The distribution area extends from the northern Balkan Peninsula to southwest Romania.
- Satureja laxiflora K.Koch : The distribution area extends from Western Asia to the Caucasus .
- Satureja linearifolia (Brullo & Furnari) Greuter : The home is Libya.
- Satureja macrantha C.A.Mey. : The distribution area extends from eastern Turkey to northwestern Iran.
- Satureja metastasiantha Rech. F. : The home is northern Iraq.
- Winter savory ( Satureja montana L. ): The distribution area is south-east Central Europe and south-east Europe to Lebanon.
- Satureja mutica fish. & CAMey. : The homeland is Transcaucasia, northern Iran and southern Turkmenistan.
- Satureja nabateorum Danin & Hedge : The homeland is Palestine.
- Satureja × orjenii Šilić (= Satureja horvatii × Satureja montana )
- Satureja pallaryi J.Thiébaut : The homeland is Syria.
- Satureja parnassica hero Dr. & Sart. ex Boiss. : The three subspecies are distributed from Greece to western Turkey.
- Satureja pilosa Velen. : The distribution area is Greece, Bulgaria and Northern Italy .
- Satureja rumelica Velen. : The homeland is Bulgaria.
- Satureja sahendica Bornm. : The home is northwestern Iran.
- Satureja salzmannii (Kuntze) PWBall : The home is southern Spain and northern Morocco.
- Satureja spicigera (K.Koch) Boiss. : The distribution area extends from northeastern Turkey to northwestern Iran.
- Satureja spinosa L .: The distribution area is Crete and southwestern Turkey.
- Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. : The distribution area extends from Austria to Southeast Europe.
- Satureja taurica Velen. : It is endemic to the Crimea .
- Thymbra mountain mint ( Satureja thymbra L. ): It is distributed from southern Sardinia to the eastern Mediterranean .
- Satureja thymbrifolia Hedge & Feinbrun : The homeland ranges from eastern Israel to Arabia.
- Satureja visianii Šilić : Home is the northwestern Balkan Peninsula.
- Satureja wiedemanniana (Avé-Lall.) Velen. : The homeland is northern and southwestern Turkey.
The summer savory ( Satureja hortensis ), also called garden savory , and the winter savory ( Satureja montana ), also called mountain savory, are used as spices and culinary herbs, especially for bean dishes . The finely chopped leaves are very aromatic and are used in fillings, soups, omelettes and salads. In old recipes, savory is also called "Saturei".
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