Savory herbs


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Savory herbs
Mountain savory (Satureja montana)

Mountain savory ( Satureja montana )

Systematics
Asterids
Euasterids I
Order : Mint family (Lamiales)
Family : Mint family (Lamiaceae)
Subfamily : Nepetoideae
Genre : Savory herbs
Scientific name
Satureja
L.

The savory ( Satureja ) are a genus within the family of the mint (Lamiaceae).

description

Vegetative characteristics

The savory species are biennial or perennial herbaceous plants or dwarf shrubs . The stems are mostly upright. The leaves are linear to narrow-lanceolate, the leaf margin has entire margins or has shallow teeth. Usually the leaves are not differentiated into stem and bracts .

Generative characteristics

The flowers are in loose to dense, but then arm-flowered partial inflorescences. The hermaphrodite flowers are zygomorphic and five-fold with a double flower envelope . The calyx is tubular to bell-shaped, slightly indistinct 10- (rarely up to 13-) annoying and has five almost identical teeth, rarely unequal. The calyx throat is usually hairy. The crown is two-lipped with a straight corolla tube. The color ranges from purple to reddish to whitish. The upper lip is flat and entire or marginalized. The lower lip consists of three lobes, which are usually rounded. Of the four fertile stamens , two are longer and two are shorter. They are more or less against the upper lip and are curved. Like the stylus , they are shorter or just a little longer than the upper lip. The branches of the style are approximately the same length.

The partial fruits are egg-shaped and slightly hairy.

Summer savory ( Satureja hortensis )
Summer savory ( Satureja hortensis )

Systematics and distribution

The genus Satureja was established by Carl von Linné in 1753 . As Lectotypusart was Nathaniel Lord Britton and A. Brown Satureja hortensis L. fixed.

The genus Satureja belongs to subtribe Menthinae the tribe Mentheae in the subfamily Nepetoideae within the family of Lamiaceae .

Since there have been molecular genetic research methods, many species of the genus Satureja have been placed in other genera, for example Micromeria and Clinopodium . The species of the tropical mountains no longer belong to the genus Satureja .

The genus Satureja thrives mainly from the Mediterranean to the Caucasus and in the temperate areas of Eurasia. About twelve species occur in Europe . No species is native to Central Europe.

There are around 38 species of Satureja :

use

The summer savory ( Satureja hortensis ), also called garden savory , and the winter savory ( Satureja montana ), also called mountain savory, are used as spices and culinary herbs, especially for bean dishes . The finely chopped leaves are very aromatic and are used in fillings, soups, omelettes and salads. In old recipes, savory is also called "Saturei".

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Individual evidence

  1. ^ Christian Bräuchler, Olof Ryding, Günther Heubl: The Genus Micromeria (Lamiaceae), a Synoptical Update. In: Willdenowia. Volume 38, No. 2, 2008, pp. 363-410, doi: 10.3372 / wi.38.38202 .
  2. ^ Manfred A. Fischer, Karl Oswald, Wolfgang Adler: Excursion flora for Austria, Liechtenstein and South Tyrol . 3rd, improved edition. State of Upper Austria, Biology Center of the Upper Austrian State Museums, Linz 2008, ISBN 978-3-85474-187-9 .
  3. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au Rafaël Govaerts (Ed.): Satureja. In: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP) - The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew . Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  4. a b Flora Italiana , (online) , accessed May 17, 2008.
  5. Deborah Engle Averett: Satureja. In: James C. Hickman (Ed.): The Jepson Manual. Higher Plants of California . University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif 1993, ISBN 0-520-08255-9 ( online ).
  6. ^ A b R. Morales, G. López González, P. Sánchez Gómez: Satureja . In: Santiago Castroviejo, Ramón Morales, Alejandro Quintanar, Francisco José Cabezas, Antonio José Pujadas, Santos Cirujano (eds.): Flora Ibérica. Plantas Vasculares de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares . Vol. XII. Verbenaceae - Labiatae - Callitrichaceae . Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid 2010, ISBN 978-84-00-09041-8 , p. 414-421 ( floraiberica.es [PDF]).
  7. ^ Avinoam Danin, Ian C. Hedge: Contributions to the flora of Jordan 2. A new species of Satureja (Labiatae) and some new records. In: Willdenowia Volume 28, 1998, pp. 135-142, doi: 10.3372 / wi.28.2812 .
  8. ^ Ingrid Schönfelder, Peter Schönfelder : Die Kosmos-Mediterraneanflora. Over 500 Mediterranean plants in color photos (=  Kosmos nature guide ). 2nd Edition. Franckh, Stuttgart 1990, ISBN 3-440-05300-8 .
  9. Avinoam Danin: The genus Satureja in the Flora of Israel online.
  10. Avril Rodway: Herbs and Spices. The most useful plants in nature - culture and use. Tessloff, Hamburg 1980, ISBN 3-7886-9910-8 .

literature

  • Siegmund Seybold (Ed.): Schmeil-Fitschen interactive . CD-ROM, version 1.1. Quelle & Meyer, Wiebelsheim 2002, ISBN 3-494-01327-6 .

Web links

Commons : Savory herbs ( Satureja )  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: savory  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations