Broad-leaved turnip ( Megacollybia platyphylla )
|( Pers .: Fr. ) Kotl. & Pouzar|
The fruit bodies , which often appear in groups, have a very thin, easily breakable cap of 5 to 12, rarely up to 18 centimeters in diameter. The hat is hemispherical or bell-shaped when young and later spread out, sometimes with a slight hump and, especially when dry, often with radially torn hat skin. The mushroom hats have an ash-, olive- or brown-gray, sometimes light to whitish colored, with radial darker fibers striped and in the middle mostly darker, rarely almost blackish surface. The noticeably broad / "deep", wide and mixed-up lamellae are whitish to later cream-colored, bulged on the stem and have notched edges. The spores appear in masses ("spore powder color" :) white. The fibrous, tough stalk is 5 to 10, rarely up to 15 centimeters high, is differently shaped, fully fleshed when young and later almost hollow and whitish to later pale gray or light gray-brown in color. The fruiting bodies are formed from the building materials that derive the tough, elastic, white, 1 to 3 millimeter thick mycelial strands (rhizomorphs) typical of this type of fungus from the breakdown of the woody material in the surrounding area, which is more than 1 meter away. The thin flesh is whitish and has a mild or slightly bitter taste.
Spores inamyloid , colorless- hyaline , smooth, ellipsoid, 6–10 × 5–7 µm. Basidia club-shaped, 35–43 × 8–11 μm, thin-walled, colorless-hyaline, with a basal buckle , often in the form of a medallion buckle . Cheilo Zystiden keulig until bubbly, 33 to 65 × 12 to 20 microns, thin-walled, colorless hyaline, some with Sekundärseptum , this often simple (no buckle). Pleurocystids absent. Buckles are common in all braids, thin hyphae with medallion buckles , wider hyphae with normally pronounced buckles .
The species of the genus Megacollybia look very similar and can sometimes only be determined sporadically with classical methods, apart from different areas. In Central Europe, Megacollybia marginata is found in addition to the broad-leaved turnip . The latter differs primarily through its dark lamellar edges, which are caused by brown-filled cheilocystids, while the broad-leaved rübling has colorless, hyaline cheilocystids and thus light-colored lamellar edges. Another characteristic is the more brown colored hat of Megacollybia marginata .
Representatives of the closely related genus Clitocybula look similar due to their radially striped hat, but differ e.g. B. by their amyloid spores.
There is also a possibility of confusion with the grubby root root (with deep-rooted stalk and radial dimples around the middle of the hat), the fawn roof mushroom (lamellas free when spores are pink), with knights with gray-black hats such as the black-fiber knightly (with flour odor and green-yellowish shimmer of the lamellae) and occasionally perhaps to some of the more than 200 red blooming species (with soon pink-tinted lamellae). The broad leaf is easily recognizable with a little experience through the very thin, fibrous hat.
Ecology and diffusion
It lives saprotrophically in rotten deciduous, rarely coniferous wood, also beechnut capsules of the upper soil layer. He bears fruit from May to October and forms to rhizomorphs like mycelium strands uniting, viscoplastic special structures that can extend far beyond one meter. The broad-leaved Rübling has its main distribution in Europe, but radiates to the east to central Siberia.
A total of 3 species occur in Eurasia. In addition to the broad-leaved turnip and Megacollybia marginata , which occurs from Austria via the Czech Republic, Russia, Siberia to Korea, there is also Megacollybia clitocyboidea , which has been detected in Japan, Korea, China and Eastern Russia.
With Megacollybia virosa a very strongly gastrointestinal poisonous species was described from India, which later turned out to belong to the Hygrophoraceae family and is now called Cantharocybe virosa .
The American species form a sister group to the Eurasian species. There are four species in North America: Megacollybia fallax , M. rodmani , M. subfurfuracea and M. texensis . In Central and South America, Megacollybia costaricensis and M. fusca are each a species.
The broad-leaved Rübling is considered common in Europe.
The mushroom used to be considered edible, although it tastes bitter in part. In some people, however, it triggers mild cases of poisoning with gastrointestinal complaints.
Systematics and taxonomy
In the past, the broad-leaved turnip was assigned to a large number of genera ( Agaricus , Collybia , Tricholomopsis , Clitocybula , Oudemansiella , Gymnopus , Hydropus ). By genetic studies has been shown that the genus Megacollybia within the mushroom-like (Agaricales) in the subordination Marasmiineae belongs. The exact family assignment was left open in the first molecular-phylogenetic studies of the mushroom-like as "/ hydropoid clade". Later it turns out that this clade belongs to some genera, namely Atheniella , Clitocybula , Gerronema , Hydropus , Megacollybia , Porotheleum and Trogia . This means that the genus belongs to the Porotheleaceae family, which is a sister taxon to the Cyphellaceae family .
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