Caledonia (ship, 1905)

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Caledonia p1
Ship data
flag United KingdomUnited Kingdom (trade flag) United Kingdom
Ship type Passenger ship
home port Glasgow
Owner Anchor line
Shipyard D. & W. Henderson & Company , Glasgow
Build number 438
Launch October 22, 1904
Commissioning March 25, 1905
Whereabouts Sunk 4th December 1916
Ship dimensions and crew
152.4 m ( Lüa )
width 17.7 m
Draft Max. 10.18 m
measurement 9,223 GRT
Machine system
machine Triple expansion steam engines
1,060 hp (780 kW)
16.5 kn (31 km / h)
propeller 2
Transport capacities
Permitted number of passengers 1,450

The Caledonia (III) was a passenger ship of the British shipping company Anchor Line , which was put into service in 1905 and used as a transatlantic liner on the North Atlantic to carry passengers and cargo between Great Britain and the USA . During the First World War it served as an Allied troop transport until it was sunk by a German submarine in the Mediterranean on December 4, 1916 .


The 9223 GRT steamship Caledonia was built in the Partick district of Glasgow in the Meadowside Dock at the D. & W. Henderson & Company shipyard and was launched on the River Clyde on October 22, 1904 . The ship was 152.4 meters long, 17.7 meters wide and had a side height of 10.18 meters. The steamer's triple expansion steam engines developed 1060 nominal horsepower and allowed a speed of 16.5 knots (30.5 km / h). The ship could carry 1450 passengers. The Caledonia was the sister ship of the California , which entered service two years after her. On March 25, 1905, the Caledonia ran out on its maiden voyage on the Glasgow – MovilleNew York route .

In August 1914 the Caledonia ocean liner was requested by the British government as a troop transport. Their capacity was designed for 3074 people and 212 horses. On Monday, December 4, 1916, the Caledonia was located 125 nautical miles east of Malta on a journey from Thessaloniki to Marseille by the German submarine U 65 under the command of Lieutenant Hermann von Fischel at the position 35 ° 40 ′  N , 17 ° 5 ′  O torpedoed without warning. The ship sank; a man was killed. Captain James Blaikie tried to ram the submarine. He couldn't sink it, but managed to brush it off. The ship was captured by the crew of the German submarine as Pinch and Blaikie.

The incident was directly influenced by the previous events of March 28, 1916, when the British ferry Brussels of the Great Eastern Railway was forced to stop at the Meuse lightship by the submarine U 33 . A sinking was imminent. Thereupon the civilian captain of the Brussels , Charles A. Fryatt, tried successfully to ram U 33 in order to save his ship. The only way to save the submarine was to descend immediately. Fryatt was honored for this by the British Admiralty . In June 1916 the ship was attacked by a German destroyer. Fryatt was sentenced to death by a German court on July 27, 1916 as "Franktireur des Meeres" and shot dead on the following day.

Through James W. Gerard , the American ambassador to Germany, the British government informed Germany that a captured German officer would be executed if Blaikie were executed by the Germans like Fryatt. This was the only way to save Blaikie from death.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Daniel-Marc Segesser: Law or Vengeance through Law? The Punishment of War Crimes in the International Scientific Debate 1872-1945 . Schöningh Verlag, Paderborn 2010, ISBN 978-3-506-76399-0 , p. 182.