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Blüse im Neuwerker Vorland (1751), made by Johann Leonhard Prey for Jacob Schuback , drawn by Jonas Haas, engraved by Gottfried Christian and Thomas Albrecht Pingeling

A Feuerblüse , Blüse , Bliese or Feuerbake is the pre-form of today's lighthouses .

Firebloods were planted in Germany on the coasts of the North and Baltic Seas until the end of the 19th century . Their common feature is not a specific construction, but the type of fire in the form of an open wood or coal fire, usually in a grate or iron basket on a solid building or a wooden frame. But even early lighthouses were operated with open fire before it was replaced by candles or oil lamps.

Firebloods reached a range of three to eight nautical miles .

The greatest disadvantage of the blooms was the high operating costs due to the fuel consumption. The Neuwerker Blüse needed 1,000 tons of imported coal from Scotland for year-round firing from 1761 , which had a higher bitumen content and thus produced a brighter glowing fire than hard coal from Germany. The Neuwerker Blüse was built to form a bearing line to the Schartonne in front of Scharhörn together with the Neuwerk fortified tower (lighthouse from 1814), which was built in 1310 . The north beacon, which collapsed in 2017, was also on this bearing a little further to the sea and darkened the fire of the Blüse when the bearing was reached. The Blüse lost its purpose in 1815 with the construction of the small lighthouse on Neuwerk, which, together with the large lighthouse, provided a double fire to bypass the bird sands.

In Gdansk there had been a blister since 1482 , which was relocated to the Neufahrwasser as a rocking fire on a tower in 1758 . Here, too, the cost of coal led to the use of wax candles, later to the switch to gas (1819), oil (1860) and finally to electricity (1890). From 1775, the "old Bliese" was a smaller to a leading light plant expanded. The Great Bliese was demolished in 1896.

In 1630, the Duke of Gottorf set up a blüsenfeuer on Heligoland . It was the main navigational aid until 1808, and the last Blüse was demolished in 1916. The open coal fire was a risk for the island's houses because of the flying sparks. Since the Blüsen also greatly reduced their main income from the strandings at the time, they were not welcomed by islanders. It was not until 1769 that Hamburg succeeded in setting up a reliable bloom for Helgoland on a brick building. The blooms from the 16th and 17th centuries were often disturbed.

For Wangerooge , a "former blouse" is recorded in 1825.

Feuerblüsen Lübeck , Wismar , Rostock , Cammin , Danzig and Riga in the Carta Marina (1539). Not in the picture: Vyborg . Neuwerker tower probably wrongly drawn as a flower.

Seesaw fire

The Skagen seesaw fire was erected in 1627 (reconstruction 1958).

The Dane Jens Pedersen Grove developed the so-called Wippfeuer ( Danish vippefyr , English bascule light ) in 1624 . An iron basket with a coal fire was hung at the end of a long wooden beam, which - like a seesaw - was lifted up via the pivot point. A counterweight at the other end minimized the effort. Compared to an open fire on a rock, the increased coal fire extended the range to 10 to 11 nautical miles (20 kilometers). This innovation quickly spread across Europe. It was not until the middle of the 18th century that stone lighthouses were built on the Danish coasts.

Blüse (lighthouse) of Patara


Individual evidence

  1. Feuerbaak . In: Universal Lexicon of the Present and Past . 4., reworked. and greatly increased edition, Volume 6:  Europa – Gascogne , self-published, Altenburg 1858, p.  237 .
  2. Neuwerk. In: Förderverein Leuchtturm Roter Sand eV. Retrieved on December 29, 2017 .
  3. No. 21. In: Danziger Seeschiff. April 9, 2010, accessed December 28, 2017 .
  4. ^ Helgoland lighthouses: Museum Helgoland. In: Retrieved December 29, 2017 .
  5. Chart of the mouths of the Elbe and Weser together with a part of the North Sea - digital samlinger. In: Retrieved April 13, 2018 .
  6. Arend Lang : History of the sea mark system. Development, establishment and administration of the navigation system on the German North Sea coast until the middle of the 19th century . Ed .: The Federal Minister of Transport. Bonn 1965, S. 34 .
  7. History of the Beacon (Danish) ( Memento of the original from January 11, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. accessed on January 11, 2015 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  8. blouse . In: Herders Conversations-Lexikon . Volume 1, Freiburg im Breisgau 1856, pp.  573-574 .