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flag coat of arms
coat of arms
Federal district Northwest Russia
Oblast Leningrad
Rajon Vyborg
mayor Gennady Orlov
Founded 1293
Earlier names Wiipuri
City since 1493
surface 102  km²
population 79,962 inhabitants
(as of Oct. 14, 2010)
Population density 784 inhabitants / km²
Height of the center 10  m
Time zone UTC + 3
Telephone code (+7) 81378
Post Code 188800-188811
License Plate 47
OKATO 41 417
Website www.city.vbg.ru
Geographical location
Coordinates 60 ° 42 ′  N , 28 ° 46 ′  E Coordinates: 60 ° 42 ′ 0 ″  N , 28 ° 46 ′ 0 ″  E
Vyborg (European Russia)
Red pog.svg
Location in the western part of Russia
Vyborg (Leningrad Oblast)
Red pog.svg
Location in Leningrad Oblast
List of cities in Russia

Vyborg ( transcription from Russian Выборг ; alternatively German  Wiborg or outdated Wiburg ; Finnish Viipuri ; Swedish Viborg ) is a city in Leningrad Oblast in Russia . It is located in the historical Karelia region between Saint Petersburg and today's Finnish border and has 79,962 inhabitants (as of October 14, 2010).

The city, founded by the Swedes in the late Middle Ages , changed hands several times in the course of its history. From 1710 to 1917 Vyborg was part of the Russian Empire . From 1812 it belonged to the semi-autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland and from 1917 to the then independent Finland . Viipuri / Viborg was the second largest city in the country there. After the winter war of 1939–1940 it became part of the Soviet Union. Before that, practically the entire population had been evacuated to Finland. Until the end of World War I, the city's population consisted of numerous nationalities, in particular Finns , Russians , Swedes and Germans . Today it consists of over 90% Russians.


The Swedish name Wiborg / Viborg is a combination of vi "sanctuary" and borg "fortress". In Finnish, the original Swedish name (pronounced / viborj /) became Viipuri . The Russian name Выборг (pronounced / viborg /) is a transliteration of the Swedish name.


In Vyborg, the Saimaa Canal, built in 1845–1856, flows into the Baltic Sea, which connects the Finnish Lake District ( Saimaa Lake ) with the Baltic Sea near Lappeenranta . Vyborg is on the Helsinki - Saint Petersburg railway line .


Vyborg was an important trading town in the Middle Ages. In the Northern Wars between Sweden and Teutonic Knights on the one hand and Alexander Newski of Novgorod on the other, Vyborg was a Swedish base against the Novgorod Rus . After several unsuccessful sieges (e.g. the siege of Vyborg in 1706 ) by Russian troops , the city surrendered to the Russian admiral Count Apraxin in the second siege of Vyborg on June 12, 1710 . Then it belonged to the Russian Empire , from 1812 to the Grand Duchy of Finland . In 1790, the Swedish fleet fled Vyborg Bay in what is known as the gauntlet of Vyborg .

At the end of the 19th century, Vyborg had six churches, an old Gothic castle, a grammar school and a navigation school . The city's port was economically important due to the timber trade , an iron foundry and local mechanical engineering . In 1886 the city had 16,639 inhabitants and was the seat of the governor of Vyborg , the court court for the three governorates of Kuopio , Mikkeli and Vyborg, a Lutheran consistory and a German consul.

In 1906, Liberal MPs met the recently by Tsar Nicholas II. Resolved first State Duma in Vyborg together and adopted the Vyborg manifesto , which called for civil disobedience against the state.

After the First World War, Vyborg fell to Finland, which had become independent . With almost 50,000 inhabitants, the city was the second largest in the new state at the time. In the winter war of 1939/40 and in the Continuation War of 1944 ( Vyborg-Petrozavodsk Operation ), the Soviet Union occupied most of Karelia, including Vyborg. The German minority , which has lived in Vyborg since the days of the Hanseatic League , left the city with the Finnish and Swedish residents in 1940 or was expelled after 1944.

Today the city belongs to Russia .

Population development

year Residents
1886 16,639
1924 51,480
1939 74,403
1959 51,088
1970 65,188
1979 75,573
1989 80.924
2002 79,224
2010 79,962

Note: census data


The Department of the North-Eastern Academy of Civil Service and a branch of the St. Petersburg State Engineering-Economic Academy are located in Vyborg.

An HVDC close coupling has been located near Vyborg since 1982 for the exchange of electrical energy between the Scandinavian and Russian power grids. It consists of three bipolar HVDC close couplings with an operating voltage of 85 kV, each designed for a transmission capacity of 355 megawatts, so the total transmission capacity is up to 1065 megawatts.

In Vyborg starts Baltic Sea pipeline company Nord Stream .

The city had a meter gauge electric tram from 1912 to 1957 , one of only three trams in Finland.

The train from Saint Petersburg to Helsinki stops in Vyborg several times a day.


The old town from the tower of the castle
Vyborg Castle
Map from 1902
Town Hall Square
  • Vyborg Castle, which is now open to the public, was built in 1293 on a small island as a bulwark by the Swedes . Today the interior houses a museum about the history of the region. The castle tower (Olafturm) offers a good view of the city.
  • Defenses of the city (last extensions 1547–1550), in particular the round tower "Fat Katharina" on today's market square, which now houses a restaurant.
  • Clock tower, erected in 1490. In 1793, Catherine II donated a bell for the tower.
  • City library, built 1927–1935 by Alvar Aalto .
  • Town houses from the Finnish period in the national-romantic style.
  • Park and mansion Monrepos (see also map from 1902).

sons and daughters of the town


Wyborg plays an essential role in Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau's film " Nosferatu ". The Wisborg mentioned there apparently means Vyborg at the extreme end of the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Finland. Murnau deliberately deviates here from the English model of Bram Stoker " Dracula ".

See also

Web links

Commons : Vyborg  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
  2. ^ Store norske leksikon, Viborg