Dangers of the deployment site

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Dangers (at) the deployment site is the generic term used by the fire brigade , rescue service , THW and other aid organizations for the variety of harmful influences that can occur at their deployment sites. In order to protect themselves from them, they must know these dangers, their effects and means of defense ( self-protection ).

Hazard scheme

Since the individual hazards can be extensive and unmanageable, the emergency services use the hazard scheme , a rule of thumb ( 4A-1C-4E rule , former formula: AAA C EEE ), which names the most important risk areas. Particularly in the management process , systematic going through of all individual steps ensures that no danger has been overlooked and that tactically correct decisions are made.

A. Breath poisons
A. Fear reaction / panic
A. Spread
A. Atomic hazards / ionizing radiation
C. Chemical hazards
E. Illness / injury
E. explosion
E. electricity
E. collapse

Extension of the hazard scheme

Depending on the literature, the 4A-1C-4E rule is created by adding

  • A bsturz
  • B iological dangers
  • E rtrinken / water hazards

extended to the 5A-1B-1C-5E rule . This is intended to increase awareness of these dangers as part of the management process.

The extension by a V and a W is less common, but is still in use. It adds the points

  • V ransport
  • W eather



Advocates of the simpler form believe that falls are already part of collapse , after all not only things can fall in on someone (but this leaves out other dangers of falling without "collapse effects", which have a far greater risk potential, cf. deaths after a fall - without a collapse Snow clearing operations without adequate security), but also under someone, the basis of biological dangers are ultimately only hydrocarbon compounds (this trivializes or completely negates the infectious dangers - which are completely different in terms of subsequent transferability ⇒ see pandemic discussion) and are mostly classified under chemical dangers , because of the similar tactical approach or illness, the consequences because of the ticked, drowning then falls into the category of illness / injury and water hazards most likely to spread (here, too, a special danger area is hidden with special PPE required!).

In order to better record its typical sources of danger, the THW has expanded 4A-1C-4E to 5A-BCD-5E , largely analogous to the 5A-BC-5E rule . It adds the points

  • crash
  • fire
  • breakthrough
  • Drown


Further dangers in use

In addition to the dangers contained in the schemes, there are other dangers that are not included in the scheme due to their lack of general validity. Examples are the ways to the fire station , journeys with special rights and rights of way , dangers emanating from special equipment ( e.g. chainsaws , cut-off machines , hydraulic rescue equipment ), dangers in road traffic and the dangers of physical stress when lifting, holding, carrying, pulling and lifting Pushing loads (see key indicator method ).

Matrix of affected persons and objects

extended hazard matrix (according to Cimolino)
original hazard matrix (according to Schläfer)

Not all dangers affect people, animals, the environment and property equally. For the purposes of the management process, the team and equipment are also included in this matrix.

The blue marked combinations of danger and affected good do not exist. The light blue fields (with question marks) represent dangers that can also be taken into account.

  • The environment cannot "drown" but it can suffer damage to the fields.
  • Material assets do not breathe, but breathing poisons (fire gases) are usually also highly corrosive

Tactical security options

attack Eliminate the cause of the danger.
defense Protection of the endangered goods by removing the influence of the danger.
rescue Removing the threatened goods from the sphere of influence of the danger.
retreat Abandonment of the threatened good.

Explanation of the individual dangers

Breath poisons

Poisons that can be incorporated through breathing . Although already included in "chemical hazards", breath poisons are listed again in the memorandum scheme to take account of their importance (frequency of occurrence, high risk, simple protection). In addition to the incorporation route of breathing, respiratory toxins can also endanger emergency personnel in other ways (e.g. contact toxins, corrosive effects). Examples: fire smoke , toxic fire gases (see breath poison ), poison gas cloud

Fear reaction / panic

Instinct-driven behavior of people, animals and emergency services in various forms.
Example: Jump from the burning house into the jump rescuer that has not yet been set up or into the ladder that is currently under construction (see panic ).
Example: Animals run into the danger area again at z. B. burning stall.

Spread of danger

All forms of enlargement of an operational situation, regarding both spatial enlargement and enlargement of the circle of those affected.
Examples: A fire spreading to an adjoining building, spreading of contamination in NBC operations, spread of oil on bodies of water

Atomic hazards / ionizing radiation

Harmful influences (atomic nuclear energy) through ionizing radiation from radioactive sources or technical equipment such as X-ray machines or particle accelerators .
Examples: traffic accident involving the transport of radioactive preparations for medicine (see dangerous goods ), accidents in laboratories working with radioactive substances.

Chemical hazards

Hazards resulting from chemical properties of chemicals such as chemical burns and poisoning .
Examples: Reaction of household cleaners with the formation of chlorine gas (see dangerous goods ), burns from acids or alkalis in chemical plants

Illness / injury

Generally any form of illness, especially traumatic injuries caused by accidents and infections.
Example: Use in a clinic, risk from possibly infectious material (see dangerous goods , first aid ).

This also includes the risk of mental illness in the emergency services, which can occur as a result of traumatic events (e.g. dead or injured children).


Danger from thrown pieces and pressure waves during various events.
Examples: flywheel
explosion after a mechanical defect, pressure vessel crack after exposure to fire (see dangerous goods , explosives , BLEVE , explosion protection ), chemical reactions


Danger from debris, emergency forces falling.
Examples: The collapse of dilapidated buildings, structural statics weakened by the effects of fire or gas explosion leads to the destruction of the building (see structural statics, crash ).


Harmful influences on the human body from current flow, risk of fire.
Examples: Use in the area of railway overhead lines (see electrical accident ), fire in electrical systems, trucks driven onto overhead line masts.


  • Ulrich Cimolino: Expansion of the hazard scheme, for example the operations manager manual, ecomed Verlag, from around 2002
  • Arvid Graeger: Operations and Section Management, ecomed Verlag, Landsberg, 2003
  • Karl-Heinz Knorr: Die Roten Hefte, Heft 28 - The dangers of the deployment site . 8th edition. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 3-17-013208-3 .
  • Roland Lipp and Bernd Domres (eds.): LPN 4 - professional knowledge, organization, deployment tactics . 2nd, revised edition. Pp. 216-223. Stumpf and Kossendey, Edewecht, Vienna 2000, ISBN 3-932750-43-8
  • Hans Kemper: Expertise fire brigade: dangers of the deployment site , ecomed-Verlag, ISBN 3-609-62268-7
  • Heinrich Schläfer: Das Taktikschema, Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart, 1990

See also

Further memory rules in the area of ​​"Authorities and Organizations with Safety Tasks" (BOS): List of memory aids in fire services

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Rainer Fritz Lick , Heinrich Schläfer: Accident rescue. Medicine and technology . Schattauer, Stuttgart / New York 1973, ISBN 978-3-7945-0326-1 ; 2nd, revised and expanded edition, ibid 1985, ISBN 3-7945-0626-X , p. 128.
  2. ^ Heinrich Schläfer: Das Taktikschema, Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart, 1990
  3. Ulrich Cimolino, dl. Einsatzpraxis.org: Dangers of the deployment site (PDF file; 83 kB),