Incorporation (medicine)

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Incorporation means incorporation : In the medical sense, incorporation is the deliberate or unintentional absorption of substances, objects or microorganisms into the body. This can be through food ( orally , i.e. through the mouth, also known as ingestion ), through the airways ( inhalation , absorption of gas or suspended matter ), dermally (through the skin , wounds , mucous membrane , etc.), intravenous , intramuscular , intraperitoneally (ie through the abdominal cavity or other routes).

Forms of recording

Substances, including pharmacological , toxic or radioactive substances, in all forms ( powder , liquid , aerosol , gas ), ointments ( transdermal ), objects (swallowing of button cells by small children , introduction of pessaries ), dusts ( fine dust , asbestos ), can be absorbed Pathogens in food or by other means.

Dosage forms (in therapy)

According to the intended route of administration, a suitable therapy for the medicinal form (z. B. tincture , soft gelatin capsule , transdermal patch , nasal spray ) for administration selected .


Pathogens are a form of absorption: prions (inanimate), viruses (inanimate), microorganisms (e.g. bacteria ) and endoparasites (multicellular organisms, often animals). The recording can be done in a variety of ways, e.g. B. with food, water, by handshake, sexual contact, but also via a vector , z. B. a mosquito that transmits pathogens (microbes or endoparasites) from host to host.

Application routes

In medicine there are many different routes of administration (application routes) (e.g. buccal , enteral , intramuscular , intranasal).


One form of incorporation is ingestion, whereby substances are usually ingested through the mouth ( orally ) with solid or liquid food .

As Pica syndrome is referred to an eating disorder, commonly in the human record than unfit existing substance or object.


Aspiration is understood as the penetration of objects or liquids into the respiratory tract .


When inhaling harmful substances, a distinction is made between various effects in the body:

  1. Breath poisons with a suffocating effect
    They displace the oxygen . Examples: nitrogen , hydrogen , CO 2
    Protection option: self-contained breathing apparatus , protective clothing
  2. Breathing poisons with irritating and corrosive effects
    They mainly attack the mucous membranes.
    Protection option: self-contained breathing apparatus or, if the concentration is low, filter devices , protective clothing outdoors
  3. Breath poisons with toxic effects on blood, nerves and tissue
    Typical representatives of this group are gases such as CO and hydrogen cyanide gas .
    Protection option: self-contained breathing apparatus, protective clothing
  4. Breath poisons with radiation effects on body cells
    Typical representatives of this group are dusts with isotopes of radioactive nuclides
    They mainly attack the cell nuclei
    Protection options: self-contained breathing apparatus, protective clothing, decontamination

Transdermal absorption

Transdermal absorption is understood to mean absorption through the skin or mucous membrane (e.g. buccal). In addition to skin contact poisons (e.g. hydrocyanic acid ), active ingredients from transdermal patches , ointments, anal or vaginal suppositories or suppositories can be absorbed transdermally.

Control of unwanted recording

Personal protective equipment (PPE) is used to reduce a routinely increased health-endangering exposure risk. Chemical laws such as the Chemicals Act (ChemG) in Germany regulate the handling of substances with known risks.

Avoiding ingestion of pathogens is a part of hygiene . Sterilization processes are used to avoid contamination of food and water .

Avoiding the uptake of radioisotopes is the task of radiation protection . A routine or event-related determination of any incorporations takes place in the incorporation monitoring .

See also

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Battery ingestion . August 10, 2005. Retrieved April 15, 2007.
  2. Trichinellosis . Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. 2004. Retrieved April 17, 2007.
  3. Dracunculiasis . Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. 2005. Retrieved April 17, 2007.